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2014年历史文献学专业博士论文摘要
来源:清史所 作者:清史所 点击数:3119 更新时间:2015-7-1

1、文献编纂与“大一统”观念:《大清一统志》研究

论文作者:王大文

导师姓名:黄爱平

培养单位:历史学院清史所

论文名称:文献编纂与“大一统”观念:《大清一统志》研究

中文摘要

《大清一统志》是清代官修地理总志,共成书三部。在学界关于《大清一统志》研究成果基础上,本文利用中国第一历史档案馆藏档案、台北历史语言研究所藏内阁大库档案、台北故宫博物院藏档案及已经出版的相关清代档案、文集、传记等文献,考辨、梳理三部《大清一统志》纂修过程中的历史细节、编修者群体以及志书刊刻等内容,并分析三部志书的类目、内容特点、材料来源、版本差异等,总结《大清一统志》在成书之后的流传与影响。同时,考察大清一统志馆、方略馆、国史馆在纂修《大清一统志》过程中的作为,并纠正已有认识的讹误。

作为继承元、明《一统志》编纂传统的《大清一统志》,它编纂的具体过程更能体现它在清代前中期清朝建立大一统王朝过程中的价值、角色和思想内涵。这也是本文着力于《大清一统志》编纂过程研究的原因所在。自从中国官方修史制度逐渐成熟之后,大多数的新王朝均十分重视本朝官修史书对于巩固统治的积极作用。因为它们是新王朝知识书写的一个途径,能够建立有利于本朝统治的新的历史记忆。“国家认同”研究取向和“新清史”在国内学界的影响已有多年,学者们评价的观点不一。在这样学术背景下,本文突破传统的文献研究方法,综合运用历史文献学、历史地理学、政治史、思想史、书籍史等多重研究框架诠释《大清一统志》,力争实现文献考证与政治社会、思想文化研究的有机融合,透视《大清一统志》与清前中期政治、社会思想的关系,并对“国家认同”研究取向和“新清史”某些观点提出笔者的看法。

《大清一统志》记录了清代前中期京师、各直省、藩部和朝贡诸国的自然地理、政区变迁、人文风俗等历史。三部《大清一统志》编修大致过程如下:

第一部:康雍乾初修《大清一统志》,356卷。康熙二十五年四月,清廷设立一统志馆,负责具体工作,至乾隆五年十一月编成书稿。直至乾隆十六年,武英殿修书处才将初修《大清一统志》刊刻成书。初修《大清一统志》前后共耗时65年,期间一统志馆与内阁、翰林院等中央机构广泛合作,并征集方志、档册、舆图等文献用于修志。初修《大清一统志》耗时较长的原因之一即是一统志馆缺乏规范的管理。康熙五十四年前后一统志馆曾暂停工作。至乾隆十五年二月前后,大清一统志馆才完成使命,退出历史舞台。徐乾学、顾祖禹、阎若璩、韩菼、蒋廷锡、任兰枝、齐召南等至少有350余人曾参与初修《大清一统志》的工作。

第二部:乾隆续修《大清一统志》,424卷。目前可知40余人参与该部志书的纂修,其中有和珅、吴省兰、钱大昕等。乾隆二十九年至乾隆五十年年底期间,方略馆承担续修《大清一统志》的具体工作。至乾隆五十五年,续修《大清一统志》由武英殿修书处刊刻成书。续修《大清一统志》是乾隆朝众多官修典籍的一种,书成之后,方略馆将其抄入《四库全书》。

第三部:嘉道重修《大清一统志》,560卷。目前可知有660余人先后参与纂修工作,如黄爵滋、曾国藩、潘锡恩等。国史馆负责重修《大清一统志》的具体工作。在嘉庆十六年至道光二十二年的31年间,国史馆编成书稿。之后又用4年时间进行校对、订正,重修工作方告全部结束。重修《大清一统志》最终并未刊刻。

本文总结了《大清一统志》在康熙至道光不同历史时期的编修过程所体现的政治意涵的差异性与共性,注重在《大清一统志》纂修的契机下清代中央和地方关系建立的过程及其变化。《大清一统志》对于清代方志事业的影响十分深远,本文从(地方)政治史的角度探寻方志编修过程中的权力与利益的纠葛。本文探讨了《大清一统志》的地理空间观念与清代初期的明代影像等思想内涵。文章还从东亚视野探索《大清一统志》在清初东亚秩序形成过程中的影响。

《大清一统志》可以看作是清代政治的一个缩影,它的成书与刊刻牵动了清朝中央和地方的多种力量。从康熙十一年大学士卫周祚提议纂修《大清一统志》,到宣统二年清末民政部提议续修《一统新志》,《大清一统志》这部典籍的命运伴随着清朝国运的兴衰而沉浮。

康熙二十五年,康熙帝任命明珠等13人担任一统志馆的名誉总裁官或副总裁官,实际负责领导工作的是陈廷敬和徐乾学。学者们指出:“昆山三徐”(徐乾学、徐元文、徐秉义)在康熙朝的仕途沉浮,既和他们与明珠、余国柱、李光地等人的党派关系有关,也和康熙朝的满汉关系、南党与北党的党争相关联。包括徐乾学、韩菼等在内的康熙朝参与纂修《大清一统志》工作的编修人员姓名竟然全部未收入初修《大清一统志》所附乾隆八年职名录。徐乾学等人的开创之功湮没于历史,其原因值得回味。

以上是初修《大清一统志》纂修过程中的一些政治内涵。乾隆续修《大清一统志》中也可发现一二。如因和清初名臣鄂尔泰等交恶,原刑部尚书张照的事迹被方略馆排除在《大清一统志》内容之外。乾隆帝颁发谕旨要求将张照事迹载入志书中。嘉道重修《大清一统志》最能反映清代国运盛衰的则是该部志书只有进呈写本,未交武英殿修书处刊刻。道光二十二年十二月,国史馆进呈《大清一统志》时,鸦片战争已经爆发,清朝面临“千古未有之大变局”,国势动荡不安,大一统也就无从谈起。道光二十六年,重修《一统志》校对完成后,国史馆仅抄写副本。从此,嘉道《大清一统志》的正本、副本便深藏清宫,直至清王朝灭亡后才被清史馆人员发现。

晚清民国年间,《大清一统志》的重印和续修也反映了近代以来中国的兴衰荣辱。光绪十年至二十年间,上海蜚英馆等多个书局计划重印《大清一统志》,此时清朝的局势更加衰败。特别是,光绪二十年中日甲午战争的爆发,清廷的战败激发了中华民族的民族救亡运动和爱国的高潮。光绪二十三年,杭州竹简斋书局成功重印《大清一统志》500卷。后来,上海宝善斋书局又应时局变化再次重印《大清一统志》500卷。此时的《大清一统志》已经成为时务新书,各地学堂纷纷购买作为教学材料。

1912年,中华民国成立。但是,新政权并未彻底改变中国落后挨打的局面。日本发动侵华战争。张元济等从保护民族文化的角度进行抗日救亡运动,成立“文献保存同志会”。在1932年“一二·八事变”中,上海商务印书馆遭到日军毁灭性的定点轰炸。但是,张元济和商务印书馆毅然克服重重困难,最终将嘉道重修《大清一统志》影印出版,这也是该书的第一次出版。某种程度上,这起到了激励民众的民族意识与爱国热情的作用,也是渴望建立统一富强国家愿望的反映。民国政府的行政院和各省政府对商务印书馆重印《大清一统志》大力支持。1936年,著名方志学家童振藻呼吁民国政府编纂《一统志》希望能对抗日救亡运动有所帮助。但是,随着战争的不断升级,国内政局不断恶化,童振藻的提议未能得到实施。1948年,国民党政府已经接近失败的边缘。国史馆再次提议编修民国《一统志》。

作为一部官修典籍,《大清一统志》的命运折射出清代、民国年间中国的历史进程。

英文摘要

Three sets of Da Qing Yi Tong Zhi(大清一统志)are official gazetteers ( Chinese: geographic zongzhi,地理总志), compiled by Central Compilation Agencies. On the basis of previous researches, this dissertation makes use of the historical recordes of Qing Dynasty, including archives of the First Historical Archives of China, Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica, the Palace Museum in Taipei, published archives, collections, biographies and etc. This dissertation studies the compilation and publication process of Da Qing Yi Tong Zhi, including their authors, analyses their categories, contents and editions, and compares their differences and characteristics. This dissertation also investigates Da Qing Yi Tong Zhi AgencyDa Qing Yi Tong Zhi Guan,大清一统志馆), Fang Lue AgencyFang Lue Guan,方略馆)and National History Institute’s(国史馆)contributions to Da Qing Yi Tong Zhi, and attempts to correct the errors of previous works.

Da Qing Yi Tong Zhi succeeded the tradition of Yi Tong Zhi(一统志)in Yuan and Ming Dynasties. Their compilation progressdemonstratesthe three gazetteers’ role in the establishment of the great united regime in the early Qing Dynasty. This is the reason why the author focuses on the compilation process. Since the system of official historical records had matured, new dynasties valued its important to safeguard the new dynasty as these new official historical works could reset people’s attitude towards the new regime. National identity study and the New Qing History have influenced domestic academics for a long time. Scholars are at odds. This dissertation uses the research methods of historical philology, historical geography, political history, intellectual history and history of books to reinterpret Da Qing Yi Tong Zhi, revealing the political, social and intellectual elements in three gazetteers, deciphering the relations among “nation”, society and individual. It concludes remarks and responses to some theory or concepts put forward by authors of National identity study or the New Qing History.

Da Qing Yi Tong Zhi recorded the Capital, provinces, borderland areas and overseas countries’ geographic scene. The compilation processes of three sets of Da Qing Yi Tong Zhi went as follows.

The first edition: 356 volume, compiled in Kangxi, Yongzheng and Qianlong period. In the fourth lunar month 1686, Yi Tong Zhi Agency, the gazetteers agency was set in the Capital. This agency was in charge of compilation of Da Qing Yi Tong Zhi. The manuscript was compiled in the fifth lunar month in 1740. Wu Ying Dian Xiu Shu Chu(武英殿修书处), the printing house printed the book in 1751. During 65 years’ compilation, Yi Tong Zhi Agency cooperated with Nei Ge, Han Lin Yuan and other Central agencies. Yi Tong Zhi Agency collected local chronicles, documents, maps and other local literatures. Yi Tong Zhi Agency took a long time to compile due to poor management, and it was once shut down during 1715. In the second month in 1750,the mission was completed and the agency was shut down forever. At least 350 people took part in the book compilation, such as Xu Qian xue(徐乾学), Gu Zuyu(顾祖禹), Yan Ruoqu(阎若璩), Han Tan(韩菼), Jiang Tinxi(蒋廷锡), Ren Lanzhi(任兰枝), and Qi Zhaonan(齐召南).

The second edition: 424 volume, compiled in Qianlong period. At least 40 people worked for this book, including He Shen(和珅), Wu Shenlan(吴省兰), and Qian Daxin(钱大昕). From 1764 to the end of 1785, Fang Lue Guan was the agency in charge of compilation. Wu Ying Dian Xiu Shu Chu printed the second edition in 1790. When the compilation finished, FangLue Guan copied the book into SI KU QUAN SHU.

The third edition: 560 volume, compiled in Jiaqing and Daoguang period. At least 660 people took part in compilation, including Huang Juezi(黄爵滋), Zeng Guofan(曾国藩), and Pan Xi’en(潘锡恩). From 1811 to 1842, the National History Institute was the agency in charge of compilation. They spent four years to proofread the manuscript. The third edition was not published in the end.

This dissertation summarizes political significance of three set of Da Qing Yi Tong Zhi from Kang Xi period to Daoguang period, explores the relationship between the Central and the local government. Da Qing Yi Tong Zhi influenced local chronicles extensively. This article studies the power and interest in the process of local chronicles compilation. This dissertation analyzes Da Qing Yi Tong Zhi’s role in the reconstruction of order of East Asia in the early Qing Dynasty. This dissertation also studies Da Qing Yi Tong Zhi geographical space conception and Ming Dynasty impact on the early Qing Dynasty.

Da Qing Yi Tong Zhi is an epitome of politics in Qing Dynasty, as  multiple social and political relationships was involved in the compilation and the publishing process. Wei Zhouzuo(卫周祚)proposed to compile Da Qing Yi Tong Zhi in 1672. Ministry of Civil Affairs of Qing regime proposed to continue the compilation  of Yi Tong Xin Zhi(一统新志)in 1910. The fate of Da Qing Yi Tong Zhi is barometer of prosperity and decline of Qing Dynasty.

In 1686, Emperor Kangxi appointed 13 ministers including Ming Zhu(明珠)as honorary Chief Zongcai(总裁官)or Vice-Zongcai(副总裁官). Chen Tinjing(陈廷敬)and Xu Qianxue actually were in charge of Yi Tong Zhi Agency. Three Xu from Kunshan(昆山三徐)includes Xu QianXue, Xu Yuanwen(徐元文)and Xu Binyi(徐秉义). Scholars pointed out that the ups and downs of their official careers were because of their relationships with Ming Zhu, Yu Guozhu(余国柱)and Li Guangdi(李光地), the relationship between Manchu and Han people, and the relationship between the Southern Party and the Northern Party. These authors including Xu Qianxue and Han Tan working for the Agency in Kang Xi period were strangely forgotten by the list of authors reported in 1743.

In the earlier paragraphs I analyzed political elements of the first edition of Da Qing Yi Tong Zhi. We also find political influence on the second edition. Because of bad relationships with E Ertai(鄂尔泰), the former ministry of Justice Zhang Zhao(张照)was excluded from the second edition book at first. Emperor Qian Long ordered the authors working in the Fang Lue Guan to supplement Zhang Zhao’s achievement .

The third edition of Da Qing Yi Tong Zhi was not printed, as in the 12th lunar month 1842, the First Opium War occurred, and the Qing Dynasty declined. She was not the great unification regime any more. After proofreading the book in 1846, it was mislaid in the Palace until the Qing Dynasty perished, until the compilation and reprinting of them in modern China.

During Late Qing Dynasty and ROC period, the re-compilation reflected China’s history in the last century. Between 1884 and 1894, Fei Ying Guan(蜚英馆)and some other book stores in Shanghai planned to reprint Da Qing Yi Tong Zhi, when the Qing regime was declining. After the Sino-Japanese War of 1894, the Qing Dynasty’s defeat had inspired the Chinese patriotic and national salvation movement. In 1897, Zhu Jian Zhai(竹简斋)in Hangzhou reprinted 500 volume of Da Qing Yi Tong Zhi. Bao Shan Zhai(宝善斋)in Shanghai reprinted it again. Da Qing Yi Tong Zhi became modern book, and lots of school chose it as teaching materials.

Republic of China was founded in 1912. However, the new government did not make the country thriving and powerful. After Japanese invasion in  China, Zhang Yuanji(张元济)united others to found Document Preservation Committee(文献保存同志会)to protect national culture relics and resist Japanese invasion. During the December 8th Incident in 1932, Commercial Press su-ffered precision bomb devastatingly. But Zhang Yuanji and Commercial Press overcame many difficulties, published photocopy of the third edition of Da Qing Yi Tong Zhi for the first time. This action of publishing encouraged peopl-e’s nationalism and patriotism, reflected the aspiration of a new unified and  prosperous country. The Executive Yuan and local governments both backed  up Commercial Press and bought lots of the third edition of Da Qing Yi Ton-g Zhi. In 1936, the famous expert at local chronicles Tong Zhenzao(童振藻)advised the central government to compileYi Tong Zhi(一统志), which was helpful to the anti-Japanese War. With the deterioration of the domestic battlef-ield, Tong’s suggestion was only on the table. The KMT government was onthe edge of its downfall in 1948. With this background, the National History In-stitute still suggested to compile Yi Tong Zhi.

As a piece of official compilation, the fate of Da Qing Yi Tong Zhi reflected the historical process of modern China.



2、清代私修类书研究

论文作者:沈伟

导师姓名:黄爱平

培养单位:历史学院清史所

论文名称:清代私修类书研究

中文摘要

类书是从不同文献中辑录摘抄资料,按照一定的体系分门别类编排,以供人查阅或征引的文献,传承历史悠久,是历史文献学的重要研究对象。类书按照编者身份可以分为官修类书和私修类书,后者在数量和对古代社会的影响范围上均超过前者。清代私修类书问世数量众多,在文献整理和历史研究方面均具有重要价值。目前学界对清代类书的研究,主要关注《古今图书集成》等官修类书和少数几部较为知名的私修类书,而对清代私修类书的整体状况缺乏探讨。本文选取顺治朝至道光朝为研究时段,以编纂于这一时期的私修类书作为研究对象。

笔者系统翻检现有的清代典籍总目、类书专题目录及类书专著,统计各书收录的清代类书,汇总得出清代类书总目,剔除掉其中的官修类书,通过查阅各书编者生平资料和翻看原书序文,整理出成书于顺治朝至道光朝的私修类书目录。以此目录为依据,通过各种渠道共收集到一百二十五部清代私修类书,以这些类书为主要资料,结合实录、文集、前代类书等文献,对清代私修类书展开系统研究。论文各部分内容如下:

绪论部分阐述论文选取清代私修类书研究作为论文题目的选题缘起和研究意义,指出研究清代私修类书对于古籍整理工作和清代历史研究均具有重要意义,明确论文研究对象,摒除不属于类书的文献,界定本文所研究清代私修类书的范围,确定以成书于顺治朝至道光朝的私修类书作为论文的研究对象,然后梳理清代私修类书的研究现状,总结出学界目前对清代类书的研究主要集中于官修类书和少数几部较为知名的私修类书,而对清代私修类书的整体研究尚付之阙如,提出采用文献学、历史学和跨学科三种方法对清代私修类书展开研究,并对论文的篇章结构作出安排。

第一章“清代私修类书的历史渊源与时代背景”,首先系统梳理了清代私修类书的历史渊源,将清代之前私修类书的发展历史划分为诞生、成长、成熟、兴盛四个阶段,分别对应魏晋南北朝、隋唐、宋元、明代四个历史时期,论述了每个历史阶段与私修类书相关的时代背景,统计各阶段私修类书的成书数量,举例阐述各阶段私修类书在体例和类型上的发展创新之处,对其发展状况和历史作用出评价。论文接着论述了清代私修类书的时代背景,指出清代疆域扩张和民族融合对私修类书提出了新的文化需求,政治和社会的稳定为私修类书编纂提供了安定的外部环境,清廷的文化和科举政策为私修类书编纂提供了动力,学术和社会发展则为私修类书编纂提供了条件和基础。

第二章“清代私修类书的编纂状况”,分别统计出有清一代和问世于研究时段的私修类书数量,以表格形式详细列出论文探讨的一百二十五部清代私修类书,采取不同的标准,划分清代私修类书的类型,根据类书的编纂属性,将清代私修类书分为自编型、整理型和辑佚型三种类型,根据类书的编排方式,将清代私修类书分为按类编排、按韵编排和特殊编排三种类型,根据类书的文献体裁,将清代私修类书分为类事类书、类文类书、事文并举类书和图表类书四种类型,根据类书的内容类别,将清代私修类书分为综合型和专门型两种类型,根据类书的目的用途,将清代私修类书分为博通治学、诗文词赋、童蒙科举、道德教化和日用应酬五种类型,各类型皆举例说明,并统计各类型类书的数量和百分比,根据统计数据展开论述,然后统计顺治至道光各朝私修类书数量和百分比,根据得出的数据并结合各朝历史背景,分析清代私修类书的时代分布情况,通过查阅编者生平资料,统计分析清代私修类书编者的社会阶层分布状况,同时梳理探讨编者的地域分布情况。

第三章“清代私修类书的文本结构”,探讨清代私修类书的文本结构,将其内容分为核心组成部分和辅助组成部分。核心组成部分由类书的正文和图表组成,论文分别探讨了博通治学、诗文词赋、童蒙科举、道德教化、日用应酬五种清代私修类书的正文内容,并举例展开论述,归纳出清代私修类书的图表包括天文、地舆、人事、庶物四种类型,并各自选取有代表性的图表在文中展示。辅助组成部分则包括类书的序跋、凡例、目录和资料来源,论文对其各自展开分析,序文分为自撰序文和他人序文,包括梳理学术渊源、阐述时代背景、介绍编者出身经历,陈述编纂缘起和过程、展现类书内容特点、解释书名含义以及宣传书籍功用七个部分。凡例包括陈述编纂缘起、声明类书主旨、解释书名含义、界定资料取舍、制定部类体系、明确编纂细则、介绍书籍功用七个部分。目录按照部类设置横向划分,可以分为类编目录、韵编目录和专门目录,按照层次结构纵向划分,则可以分为一级目录和二级目录。资料来源则范围广泛,涵盖古今四部典籍。

第四章“清代私修类书个案探析”,采取个案研究的方法,选择《谷玉类编》、《增补事类统编》、《博通便览》及其续编、《人镜集》、《增补万宝全书》,分别作为博通治学、诗文词赋、童蒙科举、道德教化、日用应酬五种清代私修类书的典型代表,展开详细探讨,使学界对清代私修类书的认识更为直观深入。各个案探析首先介绍该书主旨、编者生平和编纂始末,然后分析书籍凡例,论述类书部类结构,接着系统阐述书籍编排体例和内容,并举例配合文章论述,尤其突出该书与其他私修类书相比具有特色之处,最后对该类书作出评价。

第五章“清代私修类书的历史角色、价值和评价”,探讨清代私修类书在历史上扮演的角色,分析其与清代历史之间存在的关联,分别论述清代私修类书与清代政治、社会、学术文化之间的联系,通过梳理类书内容,指出清代私修类书的编纂、内容乃至流传,往往具有深意,反映清代不同时期的历史状况。论文详细论述清代私修类书的价值,主要体现在文献学和历史学两方面。清代私修类书辑佚亡书、索引典籍,保存已经亡佚的文献,为今日查找资料提供方便,具有重要的文献学价值。清代私修类书所采辑的文字资料,范围广泛,内容丰富,对于政治、社会、学术文化史研究具有重要价值,其所收录的图表,以图证史,形象展示文字资料难以传递的历史信息,尤其具有独特的史料价值。论文梳理清代官方和民间学者对清代私修类书的看法,指出清代官方前期和中后期对类书分别持有褒贬不同的态度,民间学者则大多既认可类书方便检寻资料的功用,同时也对类书割裂原文、不标出处等体例问题有所批评,论文就此对清代私修类书做出了客观评价。

余论部分探讨了清代私修类书与清代官修类书及前代私修类书之间的关联,指出清代私修类书与官修类书之间的区别在于清代私修类书规模普遍较小,其中的专门型类书比例较大,应用范围更为广泛,但二者之间也存在着互动,而清代私修类书的编纂亦受到前代私修类书的影响,同时也常增删整理前代私修类书。此外,余论部分通过史实客观分析了清人对清代私修类书的看法,总结全文内容,与论文其他章节相呼应,并再次强调整理研究清代私修类书的重要意义。

论文最后为附录部分,系统梳理本文所探讨的一百二十五部清代私修类书,为每部类书撰写一篇简短的提要,组成清代私修类书经眼录。各篇提要首先陈述编者之生平履历,然后介绍类书的部类范围、编排体例,最后列出该书的存世版本,以提要方式系统介绍清代私修类书的概况,以作为学界深入研究清代私修类书的基础文献资料。

论文系统探索清代私修类书的编纂状况,详细划分其类型,绘制“清代私修类书编纂速度图”和“编者省份分布图”,完整梳理清代私修类书的文本结构,选取典型个案展开详细论述,探讨清代私修类书与清代历史的关联,分析清代私修类书的价值,对其作出评价,并撰写较为详实的清代私修类书经眼录,以期推进学界对清代私修类书的全面深入认识。

英文摘要:Genus-book(类书) is the document which extract materials from different literature and classify the materials in a certain system for people to consult or cite. It has a long history and is an important research object of historical bibliography. According to the editor's identity, genus-books can be divided into the one edited by the authority and the one edited by individual. The latter in both quantity and the scope of influence in ancient society is more than the former. The number of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty is numerous. It has important value in both the collation of document and the study of history. The current research of genus-books of Qing Dynasty mainly focuses on the genus-books edited by the authority such as the collection of ancient and modern books and a minority of several relatively well-known genus-books edited by individual, ignores the study of the overall situation of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty. This article selects the dynasty from Shunzhi to Daoguang as study period and the genus-books edited by individual in this period as research object.

Writer systematically looked over the existing general bibliography of the books in Qing Dynasty, the special bibliography of genus-books and the work of genus-books, collected the genus-books in Qing Dynasty indexed in these books to get the general bibliography of genus-books in Qing Dynasty and eliminated the genus-books edited by authority among these books, then consulted the life information of the editor of each book and read the preface of every book to get the bibliography of genus-books edited by individual which are finished during the period from Shunzhi to Daoguang. According to this bibliography, writer collected one hundred and twenty-five genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty from various sources, took these genus-books as the main material, combined with “Qing Shi Lu”(《清实录》), collected works, genus-books in former dynasty and other documents to carry out systematic research on genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty. The all parts of thesis content are follows:

The introduction part elaborates the origin of the selection of the topic and the research significance to take the study on genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty as the topic of the thesis, points out that the study on genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty is of great significance for the collation of ancient books and the research of Qing Dynasty’s history, then determines thesis research object and eliminates the documents which are not belong to the genus-book, defines the scope of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty which are researched by the thesis, confirms that the thesis take the genus-books which finished during the period from Shunzhi to Daoguang as research object, then analyzes the research status of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty and comes to the conclusion that the research on genus-books in Qing Dynasty mainly focuses on the genus-books edited by the authority and a minority of several relatively well-known genus-books edited by individual while the overall research on genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty is still in the blank. The introduction part proposes that research the genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty with methods of philology, history and interdisciplinary research and arranges the text structure of the thesis.

Chapter one is “the historical origin and time background of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty”. The chapter systematically analyzes the historical origin of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty, divides the history of development of genus-books edited by individual before Qing Dynasty into four stages which is birth, growth, maturity and prosperity. The four stages correspond to four periods of history which is Wei, Jin and Southern and Northern Dynasties(魏晋南北朝), Sui and Tang Dynasty, Song and Yuan Dynasty, Ming Dynasty. The chapter discourses the time background associated with genus-books edited by individual in each historical stage, counts the number of genus-books edited by individual in every stage, illustrates the development and innovation of genus-books edited by individual in each stage and appraises the status of development and the role in history of genus-books edited by individual in every stage. The thesis expounds the time background of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty, points out that the territory expansion and national amalgamation in Qing Dynasty set new culture demand on genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty, the stabilization of politics and society provide stable external environment for the compilation of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty, the policy of culture and imperial examination in Qing Dynasty provide the impetus for the compilation of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty, the development of learning and society provide the basis and condition for the compilation of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty.

Chapter two is “the state of compilation of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty”. The chapter counts the number of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty which finished in Qing Dynasty and study period, minutely lists the one hundred and twenty-five genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty which are studied in the thesis with the form of table, classifies the type of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty with different standard. According to the compilation attribute of genus-books, the chapter divides the genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty into three types which are self-compilation, collation and collection. According to the compiling mode of genus-books, the chapter divides the genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty into three types which are compiling in category, compiling in rhyme and special compiling. According to the types of document of genus-books, the chapter divides the genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty into four types which are genus-books of historical events, genus-books of poetic prose, genus-books of historical events and poetic prose, genus-books of diagrams. According to the types of content of genus-books, the chapter divides the genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty into two types which are synthesizing type and special type. According to the purpose of genus-books, the chapter divides the genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty into five types which are erudition, poetry and rhapsody, children’s enlightenment and imperial examination, moral education, everyday use and social intercourse. The chapter illustrates every type of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty, counts the number and percentage of each type of genus-books and analyzes the statistical data. Then the chapter counts the number and percentage of genus-books edited by individual in every dynasty during the period from Shunzhi to Daoguang. According to the statistical data, the chapter analyzes the time distribution of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty combined with the historical background of each dynasty. The chapter consults the life information of the editors of genus-books, analyzes the distribution of the social class of the editors of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty and expounds the geographical distribution of the editors.

Chapter three is “the text structure of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty”. The chapter expounds the text structure of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty and divides the content into the core part and auxiliary part. The core part includes the text and diagram of genus-books. The thesis expounds the text of five kinds of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty which are erudition, poetry and rhapsody, children’s enlightenment and imperial examination, moral education, everyday use and social intercourse with examples. The thesis concludes that there are four kinds of diagram of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty which are astronomy, geography, human affairs and all things and chooses typical diagrams to show in the chapter. The auxiliary part includes preface and postscript, general notices, table of contents and source of materials. The thesis respectively analyzes these four parts. The preface can be divided into the preface written by author or others, includes seven parts which are the retrospection of the academic origin, expounding the era background, the introduction of the family background and experience of the editor, the statement of compiling origin and processes, the show of the content and characteristics of genus-books, the explanation of title meaning and the publicity of genus-books’ function. The general notices include seven parts which are the statement of compiling origin, the declaration of genus-books’ gist, the explanation of title meaning, the definition of the scope of materials, the formulation of the category system, the introduction of genus-books’ function. According to the category setting to make horizontal division, the catalogue can be divided into catalogue of category, catalogue of rhyme and special catalogue. According to the hierarchical structure to make vertical division, the catalogue can be divided into one-level catalogue and two-level catalogue. The source of materials has wide range which covers all kinds of ancient and modern books.

Chapter four is “the case analysis of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty” which adopts the case study method to expound genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty. The chapter chooses “Gu Yu Lei Bian”(《谷玉类编》),Shi Lei Tong Bian and its supplement(《增补事类统编》),“Bo Tong Bian Lan and its continuation”(《博通便览》及其续编), “Ren Jing Ji”(《人镜集》),“Wan Bao Quan Shu and its supplement”(《增补万宝全书》) respectively as the typical representative of the five kinds of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty which are erudition, poetry and rhapsody, children’s enlightenment and imperial examination, moral education, everyday use and social intercourse and minutely expounds these books to make the academia’s cognition for genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty become more intuitive and thorough. Each case analysis firstly introduces the gist of book, life experience of editor, the whole process of compilation, then analyzes the general notices of books, expounds the category structure of genus-books, systematically illustrates the compiling style and content of books, especially highlights the different characteristic of the book compared with other genus-books edited by individual, and finally estimates the genus-book.

Chapter five is “the historical role, value and evaluation of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty”. The chapter explores the role in history of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty, analyzes the relevance between genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty and the history of Qing Dynasty, respectively expounds the connection between genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty and the politics, society and academic culture of Qing Dynasty. By analyzing the content of genus-books, the chapter points out that the compilation, content and spread of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty usually have profound meaning that reflect the historical situations in different era of Qing Dynasty. The thesis minutely expounds the value of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty which mainly incarnates on philology and history. The genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty collect the lost books and index books, save the lost documents and provide convenience for finding information today, have important philology value. The text materials which are compiled by genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty have wide range, rich content and important value for the history study of politics, society and academic culture. The diagrams which are included by genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty restore history in the form of diagram; visually show the history information which is hard to deliver by text materials, especially have unique value of historical materials. The thesis analyzes the authority and folk scholars’ opinion in Qing Dynasty, points out that the authority in Qing Dynasty respectively holds praises and criticisms’ attitude in the earlier and mid to late periods of Qing Dynasty. Most of folk scholars approve genus-books’ function that provide convenience for searching information and also criticize genus-books’ style problems of splitting the original text, absence of indicating the source, and so on. The thesis makes the objective evaluation to genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty.

The conclusion part expounds the relevance between genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty and genus-books edited by authority in Qing Dynasty, genus-books edited by individual in former Dynasty, points out that the difference between genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty and genus-books edited by authority in Qing Dynasty are the scale of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty is generally smaller, the percentage of special type genus-books in genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty is higher, the range of application of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty is more extensive, but the interaction also exists between the two kinds of genus-books. The compilation of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty is influenced by genus-books edited by individual in former Dynasty. The genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty also usually collate genus-books edited by individual in former Dynasty. Besides, the conclusion part objectively analyzes the opinion of people in Qing Dynasty about genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty by the observation of historical facts, summarizes the content of thesis, echoes the other chapter of the thesis, and emphasizes again the important significance of the collation and study on genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty.

The last part of thesis is appendix. The appendix systematically sorts out one hundred and twenty-five genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty which are researched in the thesis and writes a brief abstract for every genus-book to form the record of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty which are read. Each abstract firstly states the life experience of editor, then introduces the category range and compiling style of genus-books, finally lists the existing edition of genus-books. The appendix systematically introduces the general situation of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty by writing abstract and provides fundamental document for academia’s further study on genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty.

The thesis systematically explores the compiling situation of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty, minutely divides the type of these genus-books, draws the compiling velocity diagram of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty and the provinces distribution diagram of editors, completely analyzes the text structure of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty, minutely expounds the typical cases of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty, explores the relevance between genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty and the history of Qing Dynasty, analyzes the value of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty, evaluates the genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty and writes detailed record of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty which are read and expects to promote academia’s comprehensive and in-depth cognition of genus-books edited by individual in Qing Dynasty.


论文作者:倪梁鸣

导师姓名:黄爱平

培养单位:历史学院清史所

论文名称:民国目录学研究——以传统目录学为中心  

中文摘要:中国目录学至民国时发生质变,中国传统目录学理论和实践与近代西方目录学理论和实践发生了碰撞,进而逐渐融合,中国目录学开始由传统向近代化转化,从而形成了20世纪中国目录学发展的第一个高峰。在此时期,目录学家大量涌现,并在如何从传统过渡到近代的学术讨论中,推动了目录学的发展。西学对中国传统学术结构所造成的冲击,为民国图书分类法由传统向近代转变提供了学术基础,新的分类法开始摆脱传统的“经、史、子、集”分类限制,朝着以近代西方学术分科为特点的方向发展。综合目录的种类和数量都较过去有了明显改变,尤其在近代图书馆理论与实践传入中国以后,图书馆目录得到长足发展。专科目录学成为民国目录学史的突出特征之一,专科目录的种类逐渐丰富,数量逐渐增多,而关于专科目录学史的探讨也开始起步。因此,笔者根据民国时期目录学发展的主要特征,结合本人研究方向、学术水平,通过目录学理论及目录学家、图书分类法、综合目录、专科目录四方面,对民国目录学做一简要的介绍。本文所涉及的范围较大,但因个人能力有限,只能通过其中有代表性的学者和著作,以点带面,希望能从传统目录学(即指主要以“辨章学术、考镜源流”为视角审视民国目录学,并且在论文研究对象上侧重此时期出现的传统的书名目录和对研究或总结中国传统目录学有重要意义的目录学家等)出发,实实在在的为民国目录学研究贡献自己的微薄力量。笔者研究时,查阅了国家图书馆、中国人民大学、安徽大学等单位或学校的藏书,并充分利用了数字图书馆中的电子读物,查阅了民国时期的相关论著,这些都为笔者撰写论文奠定了史料基础。在平时的阅读中,笔者也注意吸收相关研究成果,并借鉴其中的学术观点。在此基础上,全文共分为六章:第一章为绪论。该章简述了笔者对民国目录学研究的认识。民国目录学在整个中国目录学史中具有重要地位,而相关研究成果较少,因此,在目录学向现代化转变的今天,有必要对此问题重新予以审视,在总结历史,借鉴经验的同时,也为当代中国目录学的发展提供必要的理论支持,具有较高的学术意义和社会价值。该章从目录学史、目录学家、图书分类法、专科目录学和综合目录学四个方面阐述了相关研究动态,并进行一定的分析,显示前人研究的基础以及本人研究所具备的平台。另外,该章又介绍了笔者研究该问题的思路,所要解决的问题以及所使用的研究方法等。第二章为目录学理论及代表人物研究。本章首先简要介绍了民国时期关于目录学理论中重要问题的主要争论焦点,罗列具有代表性的学术观点,以窥见当时理论研究之一角。同时,该章以目录学家为纲,将其分为四种类型,并挑选出笔者所认为的各类型中最具代表性的目录学家余嘉锡、杜定友、姚名达、汪辟疆、郑振铎进行重点分析。这几位目录学家,都具有不同的目录学思想,且在当时均能独树一帜,成为各研究领域内的领军人物,极有必要重点关注。第三章为图书分类法研究。笔者认为,综合图书分类法能较全面的体现当时社会的文献结构,并由此反映文献与学术之间的互动关系,达到“辨章学术”的目的,且综合图书分类法一直是中国传统目录学研究的重点,一般来说,较专科图书分类法具有更高的学术价值,所以应成为本文研究的主要对象。该章首先追溯了中国传统图书分类法在晚清时期发生的主要变化及特征。其后,重点介绍民国时期图书分类法发展,主要包括分类法理论的发展,以及杜威十进法传入中国后,对于中国固有图书分类法的冲击和影响,以及所形成的各种派别。笔者认为自该法传入中国后,中国的大部分学者在制定本国的新图书分类法时,已经难免不受其影响。最后,罗列了民国时期主要分类法简表及论著简表。第四章为综合目录研究。笔者首先简述了民国时期主要综合目录的大致发展情况,之后选取了民国时期具有代表性的图书馆目录和地方著述目录作为代表。因近代西方图书馆理论与实践,对中国图书馆的发展具有决定性的作用,直接导致了中国近代图书馆的兴起,而图书馆目录这种在民国时期迅速兴起的新目录形式,也逐渐成为目录中的主体。地方著述目录为综合目录中的重要组成部分,且在民国时期,随着地方研究的兴起,而逐渐成为当时学人关注的编纂和研究对象,因此笔者此二种作为民国综合目录的代表作重点研究。第五章为文史哲专科目录研究。专科目录是民国目录学史的主要特点之一,笔者力求在综述此时期专科目录学发展特点等方面的基础上,结合自己所学的专业,选择史学专科目录,以及其它主要人文学科(主要是文学、哲学)中,最能体现该学科发展史的专科目录作重点阐述。因此,按照一般对于文学、史学、哲学顺序的观念,分成文学专科目录研究、史学专科目录研究和哲学专科目录研究三部分。第六章为民国目录及目录学论著简目。笔者认为,民国目录学理论和实践的发展速度和规模,都是中国传统社会中所不及的。而由于笔者能力和时间有限,不能对所有重要目录一一做深入研究,为弥补此缺憾,同时也力求较全面的反映民国目录学,尤其是目录种类和数量等文献结构方面的特点,编制此简目,以期能粗略的了解民国时期有哪些主要目录和目录学著作。根据年代等因素,能大致判断民国目录学发展的轨迹,同时,该表也能起到一定的检索作用。笔者希望通过此篇论文,首先能从中国传统目录学理论的视角反映民国目录学发展的整体特点,即目录学理论发生的根本性变革、目录学家大量涌现、图书分类法从突破“四分法”向制定新的统一分类法过渡、专科目录成为此时期目录编纂和研究的重点等。同时也通过研究民国目录学的发展,为当今目录学注重数字化、信息化的背景下,如何发挥中国传统目录学理论的学术价值,使“辨章学术、考镜源流”的目录学传统能在当今目录编纂实践中重新发挥其价值,发表笔者的一管之见。  

英文摘要:Bibliography of China to the Republic of the history of the development occurred when a large change in the traditional Chinese theory and practice of bibliography and modern theory and practice of Western catalog collision occurred, the Chinese bibliography began to transform from traditional to modern technology, and thus the formation of Bibliography of the 20th century the development of the first peak. In this period, Bibliographer in large numbers, and in traditional and modern academic discussion, and promoted the development of Bibliography. The introduction of Western learning, as well as traditional Chinese academic and the structure of the impact of the Republican Classification transition from traditional to modern times provides the academic foundation, the new classification has been out of the traditional "Confucian classics, History, Philosophy and technology, Literature" classification restrictions. Comprehensive directory of categories and number than in the past has obviously changed, especially in the theory and practice of modern library was introduced into China after the formation on the development of the library catalog. Specialist Bibliography Bibliography become a Republican history of the development, one of the salient features, specialist directory Beginning abundant numbers started to increase, while on the History of specialist directories also started. Therefore, in accordance with the development of the Republic of China Bibliography main features, combined with my research, academic level, hopes that, through theory and bibliographer bibliography, books classification, synthesis directories, faculty directories in four areas of the Republic to do a Bibliography a brief introduction. A larger scope of this article, but because of the limited personal ability, the less talk about specific issues, only by one representative scholars and works, to point to area, hoping for the real history of the Republic of bibliography, especially Bibliography of Research from the traditional (take "Identified the acquaintance, trace the origins" as perspective to discuss Republic of China bibliography, famous bibliographers and title bibliography) to contribute their meager forces. I study, access to the National Library, Renmin University of China, Anhui University, and other units or school books, and take full advantage of the digital library of electronic books, access to the Republican period of the related works, in order to lay my thesis writing the historical foundation. In the usual reading, I also draw on relevant theory of absorption with regard to this issue, research, and benefit from the academic point of view. Full-text is divided into six chapters:   Chapter I Introduction. This chapter briefly discusses the issue of my knowledge. Bibliography as History of the Republic of China as a whole bibliography in the history of an important position, while the results of research on this issue is less, therefore, in the bibliography transition to modernization, today, it is necessary to be re-examined this issue, at the conclusion of history , lessons learned at the same time, but also for the development of China today Bibliography to provide the necessary theoretical support, with high academic significance and social value. In addition, the chapter and from bibliographical history, specialist and special bibliography bibliography, books classification, directory, scientists set out four areas of study related dynamics, and gain a certain degree of analysis to show the basis of previous studies as well as the Institute, I have a platform. In addition, since I have the capacity and time constraints, in the absence of issues involved are described in order to be added in the future.   Chapter II representative for the study of theory and bibliography. This chapter begins with a brief description of the Republic of China on the directory theories important to the main focus of debate, a representative list of academic perspective to a glimpse of the corner of the then theoretical research. In addition, this chapter mainly bibliographer as the key link, for I perceived the most representative of the Republican period of more than five Bibliographer Yu Jiaxi, Du Ding-you, Yao Mingda, Wang Pijiang, Zheng Zhenduo to focus on analysis. This is several bibliographer, have a different directory Thought, and unique at the time can become the leader in the field of research, it is essential to focus on.   Chapter III of Book Classification Method. This chapter traces the Han Dynasty in China since the traditional classification has been major developments in context, as well as books Classification in the late Qing period and characteristics of the major changes that occurred. Since then, focuses on the development of the Republic of China Classification, mainly including taxonomy development of the theory, and the Dewey Decimal France came to China, China's inherent Classification of the impact and influence, the authors believe that since the Act came to China , China's most scholars in the development of the country's new book classification, it is already inevitable from its impact. Finally, the Republic of China listed the major categories of law on the summary table and summary table. Chapter IV studies for the Synthesis bibliography. I selected a Republican representative bibliography of library catalog and local representative. Because of modern Western Library Theory and practice of library development in China has a decisive role, directly led to the rise of China's modern library, while the library catalog that the rapid rise in the Republican period of the new directory format, is becoming Directory in the main body. Bibliography for the special places an important part of the directory, and in the Republican period, with the rise of local history studies, scholars gradually became the focus of the compilation and study, so the author of this two kinds of special directories as a representative of the Republic of the focus issues. Chapter V directory for faculty bibliography. Bibliography specialist directory is a Republican, one of the main features of the history, the author combines his own professional direction to history as a breakthrough point specialist directory, and to some extent in respect of other disciplines within the interdisciplinary study of the history will help the specialist directories. To form a specialist directory history research-based, taking into account the other disciplines (especially literature and philosophy) the development of specialist research methods Bibliography. Chapter VI of the Republic of directory and bibliography on the summary list. In my view, both the Republican Bibliography speed of development and size, or the directory that occurred during the study itself, the dramatic changes in traditional Chinese society, which are less than the. And because I capacity and time constraints, can not do all the important directories 11 in-depth study, in order to compensate for this deficiency, but also a reflection of the Republican sought a more comprehensive bibliography, in particular the types and quantities of documents such as directory structure, the characteristics, the preparation of this Jane Head.   I hope that through this paper, first of all from the perspective of history, philology Bibliography reflects the development of the Republic of the general features, namely, directory theory of the fundamental changes took place, Bibliographer in large numbers, Classification from the breakthrough, "Quartering" to develop a new uniform classification of the transition, specialist directory as the compilation and study of this period the focus of directories and so on. But also by studying the development of the Republic of Bibliography, Bibliography focus for today's digital, information-based background, how to play the traditional Chinese theory of the academic value directory so that the "Identified the acquaintance, trace the origins," tradition can be exerted in today’s pratice of bibliography,and propose my opinion.  

 

 

论文作者:刘祥元

导师姓名:黄爱平

培养单位:历史学院清史所

论文名称:《皇清经解》编纂研究 

中文摘要:《皇清经解》是阮元于道光五年至道光九年间所编辑的一部经学丛书,收书一百八十余种,一千四百卷,为清初至道光间经学著作之总汇。《皇清经解》在清代有多种版本,后人又编有《皇清经解》的提要、索引等,在清代有很大的影响,流传甚广。时至今日,《皇清经解》收录人物及著作仍是研究清代学术文化史的主要依据。关于《皇清经解》的研究,目前学术界多集中于阮元与《皇清经解》的编纂方面,而《皇清经解》取舍、改编、续编、出版、提要、索引等方面,较少有人深入探究。这无疑和“丛书”研究的难度有关,“丛书”研究既涉及“丛书”本身的编纂,又涉及收录著作及流传等问题,而 “丛书”内容复杂,往往会给研究者带来诸多的困难。此外,“丛书”编纂者留下的编纂资料有限,材料不多,若作深入探讨必然会有很多困难。本文选择《皇清经解》编纂作为研究对象,涉及《皇清经解》的编者、取舍、校勘、续编、出版、提要、索引,以及编成后的相关问题。全文包括绪论、正文、结语三部分,其中正文共六章。分别介绍如下:绪论,介绍选题缘起,研究现状及本文研究对象和思路。第一章为阮元的生平事功与“丛书”观述略。此章是“知人论世”的起点,分两节叙述:第一节介绍阮元的家世、交游和生平。阮元出生于“武功世家”,受其祖父、父亲、母亲影响,习读诗书,确立志向,与人交友善;早岁获交焦循、江藩、凌廷堪等人,友朋间的相互砥砺,学问日进;科举及仕宦生涯期间,阮元于政事、教育、文献出版都有创获,功业卓著;晚年的阮元仍关心国事及编刻书籍。第二节主要介绍阮元的事功及“丛书”观。阮元于政事讲究策略及成效;在教育方面创建诂经精舍及学海堂,并提携人才;而其“丛书”观,阮元以“刊本”的出现作为区别“类书”与“丛书”的标准,充分考虑到印刷术的出现对图书编辑形式的影响;另外,编好“丛书”需要“心知其意”、“精于校雠”。第二章为《皇清经解》编纂。分三节,第一节是阮元与《皇清经解》编纂。阮元在编辑《经郛》的基础上,欲以《经郛》的条例编纂《大清经解》,并寄希望于江藩和顾广圻等人,未果;后委托严杰编成。因此,阮元的作用是物色人选、确立体例、征集著作、捐资刊刻。第二节介绍严杰等与《皇清经解》编辑,严杰与学海堂诸生参与到《皇清经解》的编辑、校勘。第三节简要概述《皇清经解》的收录人物及著作的特点;对《皇清经解》的评价,后人认为《皇清经解》收录著作多有删削及校勘不精,从而有必要完善《皇清经解》。第三章为《皇清经解》的改编、续编及出版。分三节,第一节叙述《皇清经解》的改编,沈豫的改编,完成《大学》、《中庸》的改编并誊清;而对《论语》、《孟子》有初步的改编,其余的部分仅是抄录资料,还未初步整理。之后的徐时栋组织人手割裂《皇清经解》原书,分为“二十一类”。第二节叙述《皇清经解》的续编,阮元、戴望、俞樾都有续编《皇清经解》的计划,但都未成,直到王先谦才刻成《皇清经解》续编。第三节叙述《皇清经解》的出版,最早的是道光九年原刻本,咸丰间版片毁于火;其后劳崇光收拾残余并补版重刊为“庚申补刊本”,增收冯登府著作,随后,李福泰附其同里许鸿磐《尚书札记》为“庚申续刊本”;光绪年间,有点石斋本《皇清经解》,并校勘成《正讹记》一卷,在版式为“上”、“中”、“下”三栏缩印,是为《皇清经解》“横本”系列之始;其后上海书局有《皇清经解石印直行足本》,补全《皇清经解》的删削,成“直行足本”;此外,又有《皇清经解》分经汇纂系列,为船山书局本、袖海山房本和鸿宝斋本。第四章为《皇清经解》的提要与索引。分三节,第一节认为沈豫的《皇清经解渊源录》和《皇清经解提要》二书是札记体,后人虽有批评,但瑕不掩瑜。第二节认为陶治元的《敬修堂书目》依经编排,适宜初学;蔡启盛的《皇清经解检目》分类汇编,适宜具备一定研究者查检;凌忠照等人编辑《皇清经解缩本编目》,把石印“直本”和“横本”内容编为一目,方便查检。第三节认为梁格的《皇清经解分析目录》,试图把《皇清经解》收录著作纳入到现代学科体系中,且开启了《皇清经解》笔画检索之始。陈柾治、谢慧暹编纂《皇清经解正续编书题索引》一书,分为“叙例”、“书题笔划索引”、“书题音序索引”、“诸经分类索引”、“姓氏笔划索引”五个部分,亦方便检索。虞万里先生亦编辑有《清经解三种版本册页便查表》,凤凰出版社影印直本亦附有索引方便检索。第五章为《皇清经解》取舍与争论——以《尚书》辨伪为中心。首先概述《尚书》“辨伪”之由来及《皇清经解》收录《尚书》类概况。其次,论及阮元的《尚书》观,阮元心知《尚书》之“伪”,但仍肯定孔《传》的价值,阮元用《尚书》构建起“性”“命”观。而《皇清经解》所收“尚书”类著作主要以解经为主,《尚书》“辨伪”只是《尚书》研究中的一部分,且阮元收录焦循的《尚书补疏》一书,肯定孔《传》的价值。但《古文尚书疏证》在清代《尚书》研究中占有重要的地位,在晚清王先谦编辑《皇清经解续编》时,补收了《尚书古文疏证》等著作。第六章为《皇清经解》编纂与“经典”建构——以顾炎武《日知录》为中心。首先论及顾炎武及《日知录》在《皇清经解》编纂前的流传概况,认为阮元等多推崇顾炎武的考据成就,而对其“经世思想”评价不高。其次,探讨阮元的顾炎武观及对《日知录》的取舍。阮元对顾炎武非常推崇,但推崇的是顾炎武博学和考据,对顾炎武的“经世思想”不甚看重,故《日知录》收入《皇清经解》仅卷一至卷七的部分内容。再次,在《皇清经解》编成后,有《日知录集释》出现,顾炎武的“经世思想”在道咸以降被学人表彰,到了晚清,顾炎武入祀孔庙。而《日知录集释》被收入“直行本”《皇清经解》,成为新的“典范”。最后是结语,总结全文内容。  

英文摘要:"Huang Qing Jing Jie"(《皇清经解》) was compiled by Ruan Yuan in 1825 to 1829, it contains more than 180 kinds of books, 1400 volumes, to the early Qing dynasty, the confluence between the works of classical studies. "Huang Qing Jing Jie" There are multiple versions in the Qing Dynasty, and Later a series of "Huang Qing Jing Jie" in summary, index and so on, in the Qing Dynasty had a great influence widespread. Today, it contains figures and cultural history of academic work is to study the main basis for the Qing Dynasty. With regard to the "Huang Qing Jing Jie" study, now more concentrated in academia, Ruan Yuan and the "Huang Qing Jing Jie," the compilation, while "Huang Qing Jing Jie"adaptation, publication, descriptive index, etc., the more very few people go into details. This is no doubt and the "series" research related to the difficulties, "series" research involves the "series" itself compilation of research, but also on the included issues such as research books and spread, while the "series" is complex and often lead researchers to bring many difficulties. In addition, the "series" compilation of information left by the limited, material not much depth to explore if it is bound to have many problems. Therefore, this paper select "Huang Qing Jing Jie", compiled as a study involving  the editor of choice, collated, Sequel, publishing, descriptive index, as well as issues related to post-compiled to make comb. Full-text including introduction, first chapter, Chapter II, Chapter III, Chapter IV, Chapter V, VI, conclusions are divided into eight sections, as follows: Introduction, introducing topics of origins, research status and this paper, objects and ideas. The first chapter of the life of Ruan Yuan . This chapter is "knowing on the Ruan Yuan ," sub-2 Description: Section I of Ruan Yuan's Family, make friends, and life. Ruan Yuan was born in "power family", by their grandfather, father, mother, the impact of learning studying poetry and literature, establishing priorities so that good friends with people; early years were cross-Jiao Xun, Jiang Fan, Ling Ting Kan and others, among huubang temper each other, learning Iljin; examination and Shihuan during his career, Ruan Yuan in political affairs, education, literature, publishing has been created to help its political Utilitarianism, education, culture, literature and publishing industry; old age is still concerned about the affairs of Ruan Yuan and the Compilation of books . Section II focuses on Ruan Yuan's Utilitarianism and the "series" concept. Ruan Yuan in the conduct of public affairs rather strategy, in education to create Gu Jing Jing She(诂经精舍), and Xue-Hai Tang(学海堂), and cultivate the talent; but his "Series "concept, Ruan Yuan believe" Kan Ben "appears as the distinction between" reference books "and" series "standard, take full account of the emergence of printing, the impact of the form of book editors; In addition, the compilation good" books "need" meaning mind know  "," good at collate. " The second chapter of "Huang Qing Jing Jie" Edit. Three sections, section I, is Ruan Yuan and the "Huang Qing Jing Jie" Edit. Ruan Yuan in the edit "by the suburbs" basis in order to "by the suburbs" by the compilation of "Great Qing Jing Jie", and hopes, and GU Guang-Qi Jiang Fan and others unsuccessful; after the commission Jie Yan, Ruan Yuan established style, collecting books , donor Kanke. Section II describes the Jie Yan, etc. with the "Huang Qing Jing Jie" editing, Yan-Jie and Xue-Hai Tong student to participate in the "Huang Qing Jing Jie" editorial, collation, the compilation "Huang Qing Jing Jie". Section III a brief overview of the "Huang Qing Jing Jie" and included figures and books, included in the academic figures and Ruan have a direct and indirect relations, contains many books there are omissions and collation of ill-equipped for the future generations adaptation, sequel, collate, etc. hints left. Chapter III of "Huang Qing Jing Jie" the adaptation, sequel and publishing. Three sections, section I, describes the "Huang Qing Jing Jie" adaptation, Shen Yu adaptation, but "da xue"(《大学》), "zhong yong"(《中庸》) adaptation of complete and fair copy, and "The Analects of Confucius", "Mencius" is just an initial adaptation, the rest of the part of which is copying data, not the initial order. Xu shi-dong after the fragmented organization of manpower, "Huang Qing Jing Jie," the original book, divided into "21 categories." Section II describes the "Huang Qing Jing Jie" the sequel, Ruan Yuan, Dai Wang, Yu Yue has a sequel, "Huang Qing Jing Jie" plan, but all unsuccessfully, until Wang Xianqian was carved "Huang Qing Jing Jie" continued Part. Section III describes the "Huang Qing Jing Jie" the publication ,the original wood block prints, then pick up the residual Sogo workers to " Gengshen bu kan," and added Feng deng fu works, Li Futai attached its the same where XU Hong-Line "Shang shu Notes" to "Gengshen continued Kanben"; Guangxu years, a little stone vegetarian this "Huang Qing Jing Jie", and collated into a "false positive note," volume, in the Layout "upper", "Medium" , "under the" three-column reduced printed edition is to "Huang Qing Jing Jie" "Heng Ben" series of beginning; then Shanghai bookstore has ""Huang Qing Jing Jie lithography straight full-length," complement "Huang Qing Jing Jie" and omissions and a "straight full-length"; addition, there are "Huang Qing Jing Jie" divide by the Department of series, there are Chuanshan bookstore edition , xiu hai shang fang edition, and hung Baozhai edition. Chapter IV of Huang Qing Jing Jie" a synopsis and indexing. Three sections, section I, that the Shen-yu of the " Huang Qing Jing Jie Yuan Yuan Lu "(《皇清经解渊源录》) and " Huang Qing Jing Jie Ti Yao"(《皇清经解提要》), two book notes body, despite criticism, but Awaiting a balanced view. Section II that the Tao Zhi-yuan's "Jing Xiu Tang Shu Mu," (《敬修堂书目》)according to The layout, suitable for beginners; Cai QII-Sheng's " Huang Qing Jing Jie Jian Mu," (《皇清经解检目》)Classifications, suitable for researchers possess the necessary search; Ling Zhong-Zhao to edit the " Huang Qing Jing Jie Heng Zhi Suo Ben Bian Mu".(《皇清经解横直缩本编目》) Section III that Liang Ges "Huang Qing Jing Jie Feng Xi Mu Lu",(《皇清经解分析目录》) trying to " Huang Qing Jing Jie " included works into a modern discipline system, and the opening of the " Huang Qing Jing Jie " the beginning of search strokes. Chen Jiu Zhi, XIE Hui xian compilation of " Huang Qing Jing Jie Zhen Xu Shu Ti Suo Yin"(《皇清经解正续编书题索引》) a book, divided into six part. Yu Wan-Li also edit a "Qing Jing Jie San Zhong Ban Ben Bian Cha Biao"《清经解三种版本册页便查表》, Phoenix Press are also included in the index directly in this convenient retrieval. Chapter V, " Huang Qing Jing Jie,"choice and controversy - the "Book of Shang Shu" as the central detection .Ruan Yuan knew that "Shang Shu" the "pseudo", but still definitely "Shang Shu Kong Zhuan " (《尚书孔传》)of the value, and Ruan Yuan as "Shang Shu" built up "xing",(性) "ming" (命)concept. The " Huang Qing Jing Jie " collected "Shang Shu" category works mainly through the main solution, "Shang Shu", "detection of forgeries" only "Shang Shu" as part of the study, and included Ruan Yuan Jiao Xun's "Shang Shu Bu Shu,"(《尚书补疏》) a book certainly"Shang Shu Kong Zhuan " (《尚书孔传》) value. But "Gu Wen Shang Shu Shu Zhen"(《古文尚书疏证》) in the Qing Dynasty, ""Gu Wen Shang Shu "(《古文尚书》) " research occupies an important position in the late Qing Wang Xianqian Edit "Huang Qing Jing Jie Xu Bian",(《皇清经解续编》) the meeting received a "Gu Wen Shang Shu Shu Zhen"(《古文尚书疏证》) and other works. Chapter VI, " Huang Qing Jing Jie," compiled with the "classic" construct - to Gu Yan-wu "Ri Zhi-Lu" (《日知录》)as the center. Gu Yan-wu Yuan's right is very respected, but admired the Gu Yan-wu evidence research and textual criticism of Gu Yan -wu's "The world thought" less value, so the "Ri Zhi Lu,"(《日知录》) income "by Huang Qing Jing Jie " (《皇清经解》)only half the contents of Volume I to Juan Qi. However, in the " Huang Qing Jing Jie Xu Bian,"(《皇清经解续编》) compiled later, " Ri Zhi Lu Ji Shi"(《日知录集释》) appears, Gu Yan -wu's "The world thought" n are being commended scholar, the late Qing, Gu Yan -wu Rusi Confucius Temple. The " Ri Zhi Lu Ji Shi "(《日知录集释》) is income to" Huang Qing Jing Jie "(《皇清经解》)as the new "model." Finally, concluding remarks sum up full text.  

 

 

论文作者:宁侠

导师姓名:黄爱平

培养单位:历史学院清史所

论文名称:四库禁书研究

中文摘要:本研究将乾隆朝纂修《四库全书》期间的禁书活动与所禁书籍皆简称为“四库禁书”。清代禁书,历来为学者所关注,而乾隆朝以其禁书时间之长、规模之大、范围之广尤为瞩目,各种通论性的清史及文化著述无不涉及。二十世纪八十年代前,主流意见可概括为: “寓禁于征”。乾隆征书,即寄寓禁书之祸心。换言之,征书、修书为表面文章,禁书才是真正的目的。禁书的主要目的,是掩盖明代建州女真与明朝的关系和明清之际抗清的历史,打击民族意识、反清思想。此皆清帝狭隘之民族观念所致。禁毁书达3000余种,几于《四库全书》所收书相当,文化典籍遭遇巨大摧残,后果极为严重。八十年代末,一些学者开始对此提出不同见解,但尚未有人予以系统研究。正文分四大部分。第一部分,乾隆从征集遗书到纂修《四库全书》,再到禁书令的发布,先后下达诸多上谕,基于已有研究,本文对上谕进行具体细致的分析,证实这是一个合乎逻辑的发展过程,禁书并非乾隆下令征书时的蓄谋。同时,本文将四库禁书放在乾隆武功卓著,力求文治昌明的背景前,进而放在中国历代封建王朝文化建设的成规中进行考察,以论“寓禁于征”等观点不切实情。第二部分,以两条线索,即四库禁书与四库修书的关系、乾隆与官僚层面的矛盾与互动,疏理四库禁书的始末,系统揭示禁书活动的目标,远不仅是打击民族意识、反清思想。四库禁书是乾隆帝以我国封建正统继承者自居,对文化领域进行的一次比较彻底的清理活动,与《四库全书》纂修相辅相成,以期建立以维护清统治为极终目的之封建文化体系。其过程分为三个阶段:第一阶段,自乾隆三十九年(1774)八月初五日禁书谕令正式下达,迄四十三年(1778)年末四库馆制定“查办违碍书籍条款”,贯穿屈大均诗文案、《字贯》案、徐述夔《一柱楼诗》三件要案,树立“悖逆”样本,推动禁书的查缴进入高峰。从政治层面上打击明末清初史籍、文集中的非清、反清思想主要是这一阶段所为。第二阶段,从乾隆四十三年(1778)末“予限两年查缴禁书”始,清查范围扩大到所有文字材料,清查内容涉及文化、道德、社会风俗等层面,乾隆欲将违碍彻底禁绝,以整顿“世道人心”。 四库禁书表现出官方文化视野对书籍及其他文字的功能、价值的认识。第三阶段,乾隆四十六年(1781)末以后,中央奏准全毁、抽毁书目已陆续公布,“毋庸查办”的文字案件剧增,禁书呈缴渐少。在禁书活动逐步松弛的同时,乾隆不断完善封建文化样本,一则通令各省年终汇奏抽改《御批通鉴纲目续编》数量情形,欲树立其为“读史之指南”,一则严格复审纂修已成的《四库全书》,剔除“违碍”内容,更着重于封建文化的建设。第三部分,讨论四库禁书的基本原则和奏准全毁书的毁书标准。乾隆严禁诋触清朝的文字,严查万历以后的明季奏疏及谈兵、谈边书籍,全毁钱谦益等“首恶之人”的文字作品,还特别重视查禁关涉明末党争的书籍等,禁书的原因与标准呈现出多样性。这是从横的方面,即对查禁书作分析,进一步阐明第二部分所提出的观点。 第四部分,汇考各省奏缴板片、书籍,对“禁书”加以分类、辨析。通过考察中央对各省奏缴书籍进行严格审核、区分的过程,说明地方呈缴的数量颇丰的请毁书与中央奏准禁毁书的区别。又根据各类抽毁书著录《四库全书》及存目的比例;抽毁书经处理后听其照旧流行的规定;以及军机处抽毁书目中曾明确指出有5种并无违碍、“毋庸销毁”等事实,本文认为抽毁书有其特殊性,应与全毁书区别看待。结论部分指出,本文力求对四库禁书这一封建文化专制措施,作一个客观、实事求是的分析评价。四库禁书期间,乾隆时时处于矛盾之中,既想彻底铲除诋触清朝的文字著述及思想潮流,又深恐触及“忠君”之道德底线;既要惩治所谓的“悖逆”案件,却担心搞得人人自危,有玷“盛世”之声誉。所以从国家的全局看,征书、编书、审校、禁书,无不与乾隆帝力图树立统一的价值观、实现对臣民“教化”,确立符合清朝统治者利益的封建意识形态体系的终极目标相关。但在我们今天看来,乾隆的禁书举措影响恶劣,无疑是一场文化劫难。

英文摘要:My study named the activities and the banned books among the compilation of Si Ku Quan Shu that revised by Ch'ien-lung period as "Banned-books in Si Ku Quan Shu ". The banned books in Qing dynasty were followed with interest by scholars, especially the banned-books in Ch'ien-lung period because of the dimensions and the length of time. So, most works about Qing dynasty have mentioned this theme. Prior to 1980s, the standpoint is follows: the first one is "Ban on boxing". It is said that Ch'ien-lung solicited the books to ban it. And many scholars pointed out the purpose of banning books is to conceal the relationship between JianzhouNvzhen and the Ming-dynasty, to conceal the history of being opposed, to attack the national consciousness and resistance to the Qing Dynasty. It is just because of the parochial nation establishment. Some scholars emphasized that the type of banned books was more than 300, nearly being equal to the amounts of Si Ku Quan Shu. So, they focused on its passive influence to ancient books and records. In the end of 1980s, some scholar put forward different standpoints, but they have not gone with systematic study. The main body of my study is consisting of four parts, as bellows. Section A. Ch'ien-lung had issued a great many decrees. Based on the former research, I demonstrated the logic of the process from soliciting the books been left to foraging off of banned books. I found that it should one logical process, it is said to ban the books is not Ch'ien-lung’s original intention. At the time, Ch'ien-lung achieved in military, and was being attempting to achieve the political achievements. According to the routine of each dynasty, I believe that the standpoint of "Ban on boxing" is up in the clouds. Section B. I inquired the process of banned books and proclaimed the truth of the activities of banning books, in line with two clues: the one is the relationship between tampered books and the banned books, and another one is the connection and contradiction between Ch'ien-lung and officials. I found that the intension of banning books is not only to attack the national consciousness and resistance to the Qing Dynasty, but thoroughly sort out the cultural spheres, to establish the feudalism cultural system which can serve his domination. We can divide this process as follows: The first stage is from 5th August in the 39th year to the 43rd year of Ch'ien-lung. In this period, there were three major cases including Qudajun, Ziguan, Xushukui. These cases not only established the example of named-disobedience, but promoted the activity. The key task is to sort out the books in late Ming and early Qing dynasty, and the resistance to the Qing Dynasty. The second stage is from the end of 43rd year of Ch'ien-lung on, the range of detection to banned books expanded to all written materials. And the content to be detected referred to morality, custom, etc. The third stage is from the 47th year of Ch'ien-lung on, the amount of banned books began decrease gradually, and the activity became looser. At the same time, Ch'ien-lung was consummating the feudal text-sample. In the one side, to directive every province to alter the number of "Royal Tong Ian batch", to make it the guide for history, and on the other side, to review the finished "Si Ku Quan Shu" to get rid of the forbidden contents, focusing on the cultural construction. In Section C, I analyzed the principle of banning books and the rules of Grand Council to decide whether one book should be breathed upon or not. In the period of banning books, Ch'ien-lung prohibited the words to slander Qing dynasty, and check strictly the books about army and borderland. This activity destroyed all of the books belongs to the one who was maintained as crime by Ch'ien-lung. The intension to ban books is more complex. Section D. I contrast and classify the Banned-books in Si Ku Quan Shu. I found the difference in the amounts of banned books between applied and banned. And I analyze the remaining books of Si Ku Quan Shu, the contradiction between the spread of partial banned books and the stipulation. I found that the partially- ruined books is much different with thoroughly-ruined books. So, we should objectively measure the passive influence of the activity to ban books in the Si Ku Quan Shu. In the last part of my study, I try to offer a objective assessment to this autocratic measures. In my opinion, during the activity, Ch'ien-lung landed himself in contradiction and struggle. He wanted to dump the anti-Qing dynasty books and standpoint, but he was warring that whether these activities would layer a finger on the loyalty to him. He wanted to punish strictly the disobedience, but he was warring that these activities would smash the peace of society. Therefore, in the scale of whole state, boxing, compiling, revising, and banning, is all intimately related to the intension of establishing the unified Value system, and establishing the cultural system which can serve Qing dynasty. 

2009年历史文献学专业硕士论文摘要

1、畴人传及其续编研究

论文作者:沈伟

导师姓名:黄爱平

培养单位:历史学院清史所

论文名称:畴人传及其续编研究

中文摘要

    本文研究主体是《畴人传》及其续编,这一系列书籍编纂于清中晚期,是中国历史上第一部较为系统的天文数学史著作。天文数学是中国古代学术的重要组成部分,历代有大批学者从事这一领域的研究。晚明时期,包括天文数学知识在内的欧洲科学技术开始传入中国。清代天文数学发展迅速,在这一领域活跃着大量专门学者,对中国传统天文数学和欧洲天文数学进行研究。清代中期,著名学者阮元组织李锐、周治平、钱大昕、凌廷堪、谈泰、焦循等学者,修成中国历史上第一部天文数学史著作——《畴人传》。这部书为上起黄帝时期、下至嘉庆四年(1799)的中国天文数学家立传,许多欧洲天文数学家的传记也被收录其中。《畴人传》总共四十六卷,前四十二卷记录了二百七十五位中国科学家,最后四卷记录了四十一位欧洲科学家,全书共收录三百一十六位科学家。传记的内容主要为专业的天文学和数学知识,阮元在书中为许多重要科学家撰写了评论,表达了他的学术观点。《畴人传》的编纂完成于嘉庆四年(1799)。中国古典天文数学的研究在嘉庆道光年间取得了诸多成就,众多学者为天文数学的发展做出了贡献。道光二十年(1840),数学家罗士琳又编纂有《续畴人传》一书。这部书总共六卷,前两卷收录《畴人传》所遗漏的十七位中国科学家,其他四卷介绍了二十七位生活在嘉庆道光年间的中国科学家。罗士琳在书中编辑了这些科学家的传记,并为其中的重要人物撰写了评论。鸦片战争之后,大量外国天文数学知识被介绍到中国,中国天文数学研究取得了许多新的成就,在数十年间又涌现出一批天文学家和数学家。至光绪十二年(1886),诸可宝纂成《畴人传三编》一书。这部书共七卷,前两卷收录《畴人传》和《续畴人传》所遗漏的五十二位清代天文学家和数学家,第三卷至第六卷载有五十八位生活在道光至光绪初年的科学家,最后一卷记录了三名清代女天文学家,十五名西方科学家和一名日本科学家。光绪二十四年(1898),黄钟骏编纂完成《畴人传四编》。这部书共十二卷,书中收录了二百八十三位中国科学家和一百五十七位外国科学家,比较突出的是,在这些科学家中包括五名中国女性科学家和四名外国女性科学家。《畴人传三编》和《畴人传四编》均遵循了《畴人传》和《续畴人传》的体例,这四部书籍形成一套完整的天文数学史著作。本文分为五个部分,第一部分简要介绍《畴人传》及其续编的大致内容,并从对书籍编者和书籍本身两个研究角度论述现有研究状况,叙述本文的研究思路。第二部分梳理了清代中国天文数学的发展脉络,阐述了《畴人传》系列书籍的时代背景。第三部分考证了《畴人传》及其续编的编者以及这一系列书籍的史料来源。第四部分进而论述了《畴人传》及其续编的体例和书籍的专业内容,详细探讨了这四部书籍所遵循的体例,并且选取哥白尼的地动学说作为例子,阐发《畴人传》及其续编中所记载的天文学知识,以呈现这一系列书籍的专业知识内容。第五部分梳理了《畴人传》及其续编中所蕴含的思想脉络,论述了书中体现的主张实事求是、尊崇中国古典天文数学、肯定学术进步、主张“西学中源”说等学术思想,并评价了《畴人传》系列书籍对学术界的影响。

英文摘要

    The main body of the article is to research into Chou-Ren Zhuan and its continuation, this series of books was compiled in the period from the Middle Qing Dynasty to the Late Qing Dynasty. It is the first systematic history book of astronomy and mathematics in China history. Astronomy and mathematics are the important component of Chinese ancient learning. There are a lot of scholars who conducted research in this field in every dynasty. The European science and technology including astronomical and mathematical knowledge started to be introduced to China in the Late Ming Dynasty. China astronomy and mathematics began to absorb the science knowledge from Europe. Astronomy and mathematics get rapid development in Qing Dynasty. There are a lot of special scholars who were active in this field. Both Chinese traditional astronomy and mathematics and European astronomy and mathematics are researched by people. Ruan Yuan who was a famous scholar of the Middle Qing Dynasty had organized Li Rui, Zhou Zhiping, Qian Daxin, Ling Tingkan, Tan Tai and Jiao Xun to complete the compilation of Chou-Ren Zhuan which is the first history book of astronomy and mathematics in China history. The Compilers wrote the biographies of Chinese astronomers and mathematicians who lived in the period from the era of Huang Di to 1799 in the book. A lot of biographies of European astronomers and mathematicians are also included in the book. There are altogether 46 volumes in this book, 275 Chinese scientists are included in the first 42 volumes, 41 European scientists are included in the last 4 volumes, and 316 scientists in total are included in the book. The content of biographies is mainly about the professional knowledge of astronomy and mathematics. Ruan Yuan wrote comments on many important scientists in the book. These comments expressed his academic viewpoint. The compilation of Chou-Ren Zhuan was completed in 1799. The research on Chinese classical astronomy and mathematics got a lot of achievements during the period of Jia Qing and Dao Guang. Many scholars had made contributions to the development of astronomy and mathematics. Luo Shilin who was a mathematician completed the compilation of Chou-Ren Zhuan Ⅱ in 1840. There are altogether 6 volumes in this book, 17 Chinese scientists who were omitted by Chou-Ren Zhuan were included in the first 2 volumes, 27 Chinese scientists who lived in the era of Jia Qing and Dao Guang were introduced in the other 4 volumes. Luo Shilin edited the biographies of these scientists in the book, he wrote comments on the important persons of them. After the Opium War, a large amount of foreign astronomy and mathematics knowledge was introduced to China. Chinese research on astronomy and mathematics acquired a lot of new achievements. Many persons became astronomers and mathematicians during decades. Zhu Kebao completed the compilation of Chou-Ren Zhuan Ⅲ in 1886. There are altogether 7 volumes in this book, 52 astronomers and mathematicians in Qing Dynasty who were omitted by Chou-Ren Zhuan and Chou-Ren Zhuan Ⅱ were included in the first 2 volumes, 58 scientists who lived in the period from Dao Guang to the early years of Guang Xu were recorded in the volumes which from Ⅲ to Ⅵ. Three female astronomers in Qing Dynasty, fifteen Western scientists and one Japanese scientist were included in the last volume. Huang Zhongjun completed the compilation of Chou-Ren Zhuan Ⅳ in 1898. There are altogether 12 volumes in this book, 283 Chinese scientists and 157 foreign scientists were recorded in the book. More prominent is five Chinese female scientists and four foreign female scientists were included in these scientists. Both Chou-Ren Zhuan Ⅲ and Chou-Ren Zhuan Ⅳ followed the style of Chou-Ren Zhuan and Chou-Ren Zhuan Ⅱ. These four books formed a set of complete history book of astronomy and mathematics.    This article is divided into five parts. The first part briefly introduced the general content of Chou-Ren Zhuan and its continuation. This part also discusses the status of existing research from the two angles of research on the compilers and on the books. The research ideas of the article are also described. In the second part, the article sorts out the development context of Chinese astronomy and mathematics in Qing Dynasty and elaborates the times of the series books of Chou-Ren Zhuan. The third part of this article researches textually the compilers of Chou-Ren Zhuan and its continuation and the historical data sources of this series of books. Then, the forth part discusses the style and the professional content of Chou-Ren Zhuan and its continuation. The style which is followed by these four books is also analyzed in detail by this part. In this part, the article chooses Copernicus’s Heliocentric Theory as an example to elucidate the astronomy knowledge which is recorded in Chou-Ren Zhuan and its continuation. The purpose of doing this is to show the professional knowledge content of this series books. The fifth part of this article sorts out ideological context which is contained in Chou-Ren Zhuan and its continuation. In this part, the article discusses the academic thinking of advocating of seeking truth from facts, respecting Chinese classical astronomy and mathematics, appreciating the progress of academy research and promoting the theory of “Western Learning Being of Chinese Origin” etc. The academic thinking above is reflected in the book. At last, the article evaluates the influence which the series books of Chou-Ren Zhuan bring to the academia.  

 

2、宋代亡书之学研究 

论文作者:李向福

导师姓名:李晓菊

培养单位:历史学院历史系

论文名称:宋代亡书之学研究 

中文摘要

    宋代是中国封建文化大发展时期,社会文化事业发展取得了一系列突破,图书事业也呈现出一片繁荣的景象。在这样的大背景下,亡书问题变得那么突出,宋代学者们对此问题进行了深入的探讨,尤其是大史学家郑樵,更是第一次大胆地提出了“亡书之学”的概念,并且进行极为细致地研究,将亡书问题发展到中古时期的最高峰。本文以此为视角,尽力对宋代亡书之学进行探析。全文主要包括三章内容:第一章,主要从当时的社会文化环境、政府的征书活动和宋代学者关于亡书问题的论述三个方面追溯了宋代亡书之学形成的基础源流。笔者认为宋朝的崇文政策、雕版印刷技术下大发展的图书业与藏书家人才辈出以及政府的征书活动,都对宋人研究亡书问题起到了推动作用,因此出现了一系列成果。第二章,阐述了亡书之学的提出及其体系。在本文看来,郑樵的求学读书之路与提出亡书之学有着极其微妙的关系。其理论体系内容丰富,不仅包括亡书出现的原因,还涵盖了治理亡书的方法。第三章,分析了宋代亡书之学的得失及其对后世的影响。在着重分析亡书之学的重要价值和对后人深远影响的同时,也对其中的不足之处进行了深刻探讨,旨在对亡书之学作出相对客观公正的评价。

英文摘要

    The Song Dynasty is a period of great development in Chinese feudal culture, social and cultural undertakings have made a series of breakthroughs, books enterprise also had shown a cause of prosperity. Are in the same context, the issue of lost documents became so prominent, scholars of the Song Dynasty had discussed the questions thoroughly, especially the great historian-Zhengqiao, who first proposed the concept of " study of the lost documents", and carried out careful research ,which would lead the issue of lost book to the peak of the Middle Ages. In this paper, the author try to make a study of lost documents about Song Dynasty as a perspective. The full text of the main contents include three chapters: Chapter I: mainly from the three aspects—the social and cultural environment at that time, the Government's activity and the discussion of lost book of scholars to trace the origins of the study of lost book about Song Dynasty. I think that Song Dynasty’s more attention to cultural policy, printing technology development under the big book industry and book collectors emerged in large number, as well as the activities of the Government's collecting books, which played a role in promoting the problem and, therefore, achieved the results of a series. Chapter II: elaborate the proposal and system of the study of lost book. In this view, there is a contact between the road of study and reading of Zhengqiao and the proposal of the study of lost book. Its theoretical system contains many elements, not only including the cause of lost book, covers the solution . Chapter III: an analysis of gains and losses of the study of lost book about Song Dynasty and its impact on future generations. Analysis not only focus on the study of significant value and far-reaching impact on future generations, but also on the shortcomings and deficiencies with a profound discussion in order to make relatively objective and just evaluation. Keywords: The Song Dynasty;Zhengqiao;Study of lost documents 

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