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2020年历史文献学专业博士论文摘要
来源:清史所 作者:清史所 点击数:300 更新时间:2020/6/9

论文题目:《明代两京官署志研究

作者姓名:石鹏

专业名称:历史文献学

指导老师:李晓菊


论文摘要
      官署志,是关于政府某一衙署或机构的专门志书。中国古代志书产生甚早,源远流长。作为中国古代专门志书的一种,官署志产生于唐代中后期,经过宋、元时期的继承发展,其体例与内容渐次成熟。明代实行南北两京制度,两京衙署修志之风兴于嘉靖朝,至天启朝达到鼎盛,成为明代历史文献编纂和政治文化发展的一个重要现象。有明一代,两京衙署所修官署志不少于六十六部,现存三十二部,其中明刊本二十一部。明刊本中嘉靖本南京官署志为白口,仿宋字体,在版式上受苏州刻本影响较大。
      在体例方面,明代两京官署志主要为纲目体,在嘉靖年间产生了仿自《史记》的纪传体,是明代官署志编纂的一个新的类型。此外,明代两京官署志始专收玉音,创设“谟训”、“圣训”类目,结合列传、志、表等结构,形成了有关学者所谓“训传体”官署志,亦具特色。在内容方面,明代两京官署志备载相关衙署的各个方面,堪称该衙署之“百科全书”,其主要内容包括诏敕文书、官署沿革、职掌与事例、题名表(录)与传记、图录五个方面,尤其是所载官廨制度、职官设置、见行事例、石刻及题名记等,可补《明实录》《大明会典》之不足,具有重要的文献价值。
      明代两京官署志中,《南京刑部志》《南京户部志》是南京官署志中较为重要的两种,修志流程以及志书体例亦相对成熟。这两部志书现存版本均不止一种,且后印本在内容上有所增补。《太常寺续纪》《太常续考》是关于北京太常寺的志书,也是北京官署志中现存内容比较完整的两部志书。太常寺掌祭祀、礼乐之事,注重典制仪式,因而太常寺志的体例及内容亦有其自身特色。
      明代两京官署志的编纂与明代的政治文化关系密切。天启二年(1622),熹宗诏修神宗、光宗实录,同时令两京衙署各辑其志,以备史馆采用,并派董其昌前往南京采集史料,南京衙署借呈报史料之机,纷纷聘请监生、生员纂修本署志书,朝廷则给予秉笔者官职。这不仅使得明代两京官署志执笔者的身份不断下移,而且直接推动了明代两京尤其是南京官署修志的编纂在天启朝达到一个高潮。明代两京官署志以官修为主,属于本署官员集体协作的成果,志书中编纂者个人意志相对单薄,不少内容呈现出官员群体共同的政治文化理念,大致有三:一是对皇权的尊崇与服从;二是纪念本署前贤,规勉后来者,由此形成对本署的认同感和荣耀感;三是对南京衙署而言,编纂署志亦有为本署“正名”之意。
      明代两京衙署修志与政务运作亦有一定的关系。机构官吏在日常行政中,不得不处理和依靠各种文书。当各种行政记录或公文里的内容已为成宪,或对日后行政具有参考意义,保存行政记录或文书成为政治行为中不可或缺的部分。而案牍的增多或散佚,对案牍的查找与利用均造成了困难,衙署又不得不对档案文书进行搜集与整理,尤其是南京衙署,因档案保存不如北京完整,对档案文册整理的欲望更为强烈。官署志的撰修,使本署文献得到整理和完备,从而为本署官员建言献策或处理政事提供凭据。政务需求可谓明代两京官署志编纂的内在驱动力,从根本上讲,也是中国传统文牍政治在明代两京政治制度下发展的结果。
关键词:明代;两京;官署志
 
Abstract
Departmental gazetteer,is a special chronicle about a government office or agency. The ancient Chinese chronicles came into being very early and had a long history. As a kind of special chronicle in ancient China, the departmental gazetteer originated in the middle and late Tang Dynasty. After the development of the Song and Yuan Dynasties, its style and content matured gradually, The Ming Dynasty implemented the system of two capitals about the Nanjing and Beijing. The atmosphere of compiling the Nanjing and Beijing’s departmental gazetteers, developed in Jiajing Dynasty, flourished in Tianqi Dynasty, is an important phenomenon of the historical literature compilation and the political culture development in the Ming Dynasty. There are no less than sixty-six departmental gazetteers, and there are thirty-one existing ones, of which twenty-one are the block-printed edition of Ming Dynasty. The Nanjing’s departmental gazetteers printed in Jiajing are white edge, imitation Song-Dynasty-style typeface, in influenced by the block-printed edition of Suzhou.

In the aspect of style, the Nanjing and Beijing’s departmental gazetteers were mainly  the detailed outline, and the biography from the Shiji (史记) was produced during the years of Jiajing in the Ming Dynasty, which is a new type of departmental gazetteers of the Ming Dynasty. In addition, the Nanjing and Beijing’s departmental gazetteers began to collect what the emperor said, and created the category of "Moxun"(谟训) and "Shengxun"(圣训), which combined with the structure of biographies, records, tables and so on, formed the departmental gazetteers of the so-called" Xunzhuanti"(训传体), which also has characteristics. In terms of content, all aspects of the relevant government offices in the Nanjing and Beijing’s departmental gazetteers are listed as "encyclopedias" of the government offices. The main contents of the Nanjing and Beijing’s departmental gazetteers include five aspects, such as imperial document, evolution of the government offices, duty and regulations, official name’s lists and biographies and charts, especially the system of official residence, official system, daily routine, stone diagrams, are an important document value to supplement the deficiency of "Ming Shi Lu"(明实录) and "Daming Hui Dian "(大明会典).

In the Nanjing and Beijing’s departmental gazetteers, "Nanjing xingbu zhi"(南京刑部志)and" Nanjing hubuzhi "(南京户部志) are the two most important ones in the Nanjing’s departmental gazetteers. The process and style of compiling gazetteers are relatively mature. There is more than one existing edition of these two gazetteers and the postprint are updated in content. "Taichangsi xuji"(太常寺续纪) and "Taichang xukao"(太常续考) are about the Beijing Taichang Temple's gazetteers, but also are relatively complete among the existing of the Beijing’s departmental gazetteers. Taichang Temple in charge of sacrificial rites and ritual music, pay attention to ceremony system, so the style and content of Taichang Temple’s gazetteers also have its own characteristics.

The compilation of the Nanjing and Beijing’s departmental gazetteers was closely related to the political culture of the Ming Dynasty. In the second year of Tianqi(1622), Xi Zong ordered to compile the Shenzong and Guangzong shilu, at the same time ordered the Nanjing and Beijing’s department to compile gazetteers, in preparation for the history center, and sent Dong qichang to Nanjing to collect historical materials, the government offices of Nanjing by the opportunity to submit historical materials, one after another hired Chien-sheng and Sheng-yuan to compile the Department's gazetteers, the court to give the byliner official post. This not only makes the status of the author of departmental gazetteers moved down, but also directly promoted the compilation of the departmental gazetteers, especially the Nanjing’s departmental gazetteers to reach a climax in the Tianqi Dynasty. The Nanjing and Beijing’s departmental gazetteers were mainly official compiling, which were part of the collective cooperation between officials of the Department  As a result, the personal will of the compilers in the departmental gazetteers is relatively little, and many of the contents present the common political and cultural ideas of the official groups. One is to respect and obey the imperial power; the other is to commemorate the former sages of the department and encourage the later ones, thus forming a sense of identity and glory to the department; and the third is to the Nanjing government office, which also means rectification of name for the department.

The compilation of the Nanjing and Beijing’s departmental gazetteers also has a relationship with the work of government affairs. Institutional officials in the daily administration, had to deal with and rely on various documents. The preservation of administrative records or documents becomes an integral part of political conduct when the contents of the various administrative records or documents have become constitutional or are of reference to future administration. The increase or loss of the documents have caused difficulties to search and use of the documents. The government offices had to collect and organize the file documents, especially the Nanjing’s offices, because the preservation of the documents is not as complete as Beijing, the desire to organize the documents is stronger. Through the compilation of official documents, the Department's literature has been collected and finished, thus providing evidence for the advice or handling of affairs by officials. The demand for government affairs can be described as the internal driving force of the compilation of the Nanjing and Beijing’s departmental gazetteers, and it is also the result of the development of Chinese traditional documents politics under the political system of the Nanjing and Beijing in the Ming Dynasty.

 Keywords: Ming Dynasty; Nanjing and Beijing; Departmental gazetteer


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