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2003级历史文献学专业硕士论文摘要
来源:清史所 作者:清史所 点击数:2291 更新时间:2015-4-23

2003级历史文献学专业硕士论文摘要

论文作者:晏爱红

导师姓名:李景屏

培养单位:历史学院清史所

论文名称:乾隆《乐善堂全集》改订考释

中文摘要

《乐善堂全集》是乾隆皇帝居藩期间诗文作品的结集,集中反映了涉世未深的年轻皇子弘历的理想、抱负、情趣以及闲适恬淡的心境,其中浸透着正统儒家的教条和理念。乾隆即位之初,《乐善堂全集》付梓行世,但二十三年以后,乾隆特降旨将《乐善堂全集》收缴改订,他说:“今日偶阅《乐善堂集》,缘初刻所存卷帙颇繁,其中多有不甚惬心之句。”这时,乾隆皇帝已近知天命之年,随着平准大业的胜利完成,不仅成为国势臻于全盛的清帝国的雄主,而且在政治上开始从年轻时的稚嫩步入壮年的成熟。他开始清算年轻时代头脑中某些迂腐而不切实际的儒家训条,有意识地反省执政二十余年以来自己思想的转变的历程,而审视的目标就定位在青少年的习作——《乐善堂全集》上。他感到该诗文集“卷帙颇繁”,更痛感“其中多有不甚惬心之句”。《乐善堂全集》先后至少有七个版本:《乐善堂文钞》(也称《庚戌文钞》)雍正八年刻本、《乐善堂全集》乾隆二年初刻本、《乐善堂全集》乾隆二十四年定本、《乐善堂全集》《四库全书》本、《乐善堂全集》光绪五年刻本、《乐善堂全集》台湾故宫博物院影印本和中国人民大学出版社影印本。通过比较《乐善堂全集》各种版本异同,可以得出这样的结论:《乐善堂全集》七个版本中,如果将《乐善堂文钞》这一手抄本除外的话,总的可以分为初刻本和定本两大系统。乾隆二年颁行的属初刻本,其余的五个版本均属定本系统。在对存世的各种版本的《乐善堂全集》从文献学角度进行考察后,本文详细地比较了初刻本和定本在体例和内容上存在的不同。乾隆之所以决定删订《乐善堂全集》初刻本,既有形式上所谓“卷帙颇繁”的考虑,又有内容上“不甚惬心”的从政治高度的考虑,而后者从历史学角度看,无疑是饶有兴趣的研究课题。为便于说清问题,本文首先将删去的主要内容大致归并为“制义”、“赞颂老师及平郡王福彭的序文”、“对高欢、李陵的评议”、“有关祥瑞的《河清颂》”、“对汉武帝、隋文帝、李绛和欧阳修的评议”、“有关‘仁政’的论述”等六类,分别解释删去的原因。这样解释起来,可能比较容易,也比较能让人信服。在分别阐释乾隆决定删掉的上述作品的原因后,本文转入对乾隆思想体系前后变化的探讨,以便从总体上给出乾隆何以删订《乐善堂全集》的答案。乾隆青少年时代从师朱轼、蔡世远、福敏等大儒,晚年写《怀旧诗•三先生三首》,分别概括说“吾得学之体”、“吾得学之用”、“吾得学之基”,这既是对恩师的追念,更是对自己所受教益的精辟总结。所谓“体”“用”“基”,构成了乾隆一生受用不尽的正统儒家思想体系的理论资源和实用工具,但朱轼等先生都是醇儒,他们灌输给年轻皇子弘历书本知识中,不免有不合时宜的某些圣贤训条。弘历在读书的时候,用这些儒家理念去品评人物,去议论国事,说起来头头是道,下笔为文似乎也有得意之情。乾隆即位之初,很珍视这些作品,就结集为《乐善堂全集》。经过二十余年的为政实践,乾隆深感年轻时学的这一套多有行不通的地方,是和祖父康熙皇帝、父亲雍正皇帝有关训谕背道而驰的。他总结这段经历,写下《古风》一诗说:“曩余佩古训,治理颇能言。行之扞格多,乃悟实践难。”在这样的背景下,乾隆萌发了重新修订《乐善堂全集》初刻本的想法是合乎逻辑的。乾隆十六年孙嘉淦伪奏稿案,以及以后接踵发生的几起大的文字狱,给乾隆敲起了警钟,使他对意识形态领域内斗争的严重性有了新的认识,从而决心通过行政手段,将内容存在诸多政治问题的《乐善堂全集》初刻本全部收回上缴,经过精心删改后,再以《乐善堂全集定本》刊行于世。这样做,既为维护自己一贯正确的形象,更重要的是免得留下后患。

英文摘要

English  summary   Le shan tang  complete works were the collation of  poetic prose works , and Embodied a concentrated reflection of and gain life experience dark young emperor youngs, Soaking into the dogma and theory of the orthodox the Confucian school among them . Qianlong firstly ascended the throne, Chinese catalpa competent generationses, but not after the one year le shan tang  complete works., Qianlong ordered  le shan tang complete works would be taken over and be reformulated purportly, he said specially: "Reading" le shan tang  collection, reason carve rolls of quite in great numbers cloth slip-case for a book depositted for the first time, it had to be very satisfied with the ones of hearts more among them occasionally today. " At this moment, already near know God's wills annual emperor Qianlong, with flat to allow the finishing successfully of great cause, Becomling country attain Yu the clear the male main facts of kingdomses of QuanSheng was but also at political begins tender to step into the maturity in meridian of life by tendency. He began clear some pedantic and impractical the Confucianists lecture one young era heads, The course of transition of one's own thought since introspecting for more than 20 years in power consciously, The goal examined closely makes a reservation in teenagers' exercise --" le shan tang  complete works"  had. He felt this collected works" one quite in great numbers cloth slip-case for a book", keenly feeling" itting has to be very satisfied the ones of hearts more among them". Le shan tang  complete works there were 7 editions at least successively: le shan tang  document paper ( claims too that geng xu paper) Yong Zhengs eight year block-printed edition, " it was good since it had been le shan tang complete works Qianlong the beginning of two year block-printed editions,  it was the work in Qianlong 24 year definitive editions,  it was le shan tang complete works four storehouses of pandects ones, Guang Xu's block-printed edition, the photo-offset copy of the Palace Museum of Taiwan and the People's University of China publishing house's photo-offset copy of  le shan tang  complete works in five years of le shan tang  complete works. Through comparing edition similarities and differenceses, must produce such an conclusion le shan tang  complete works: Of the seven a piece of editions, if this copy except what le shan tang  complete works, The total one could be divided into the block-printed edition and two major systems of definitive edition of the beginning . What Qianlong issued for enforcement in two years belonged to the block-printed edition at the beginning, other five editions belonged to the system of definitive edition . In order to store the of different editions le shan tang  complete works of generation learn angle go on from document, This text compare and definitive edition deposit different some at style and content block-printed edition the beginning in detail. Qianlong decided to delete and book the block-printed edition for the first time of le shan tang  complete works , the so-called in form consideration that" a cloth slip-case for a book had been quite in great numbers , At being meaningful very satisfied hearts at politics strong considerations, and the latter from the point of view of history, It was undoubtedly a research subject full of interest. In order to benefit the question of talking clearly, This texts at first leave out more main by content merge into roughly,  extol teachers and not flat prefecture Wang good fortune of the prefaces of Pengses, To Gao Huan, Lies Lings appraise through discussion, auspicious without being had something to do with auspicious  river clear to praise ,appraising through discussion , argumentation about ' mercies 's,etc. the sixth kind at Ouyang Xius Li Jiang at gentle emperors Suies for Emperor Wu Di of the Han dynasty, Explain the reason left out separately. Explain like this, may be relatively easy, can relatively make people convinced too. In explaining Qianlong determining above-mentioned the reasons of workses that deleted, this text change over to change discussion to Qianlong ideological system separately, In order to giving and publishing how to delete the answer of stapling le shan tang  complete works Qianlong on the whole. Qianlong apprenticed to Zhu shi, Cai ShiYuan, quick good fortune heavy Confucianism teenage, Write at old ages" cherish old-style poetry three  gentlemen" the third piece, summarized and saied by" body where I study" separately, study at I with, base where I study , This was recalling to kindness teacher , was even more the penetrating summary of the benefit gained from others' wisdom that oneself receiveed . So-called" body"s" spend" " base", form Qianlong at orthodox the Confucianists the theory resource and utilities of ideological systems that could not use up all one's life, But often,etc. gentleman alcohol's Confucianism bright red, they inculcated young huangzi with enlarge almanac a knowledge emperor s of giving, Some unseasonable sages and men of virtue lecture one unavoidably. In when studying, it went and judged personage Hong Li with these theory went national affairs of discussing, Saying clearly and logically, and started writing or painting and seemed and had proud of feeling even for article. At the beginning when Qianlong ascended the throne, values these works very much, concentrate for le shan tang  complete works. At to practise for policy one year, ways to do things who Qianlong study when feeling deeply young have impossible place at more than, Involved in grandfather emperor Kang Xi, father emperor Yong Zheng and lecture knowing well and run in the opposite direction. He summarized this section of experiences, writeing one poem of" ancient customs" and said: "Beautifully adorned Is wear ancient saying, quite speak to manage. There are much doses walking, it is difficult to realize practice. "Under such a background, the idea of the block-printed edition was logical at the beginning that Qianlong has sprouted and revises" le shan tang  complete works" again.16 Qianlong good, false to play the draft case, and several cases of heavy literary inquisition happenning one after another grandson year, It gave Qianlong knock at alarm bell of getting up make him had new understanding to severity who the ideological sphere struggle, Thus determined at administration means, havd for the first time block-printed edition all regain and turn over the le shan tang  complete works of political issues content, After revising meticulously, and then publish in generation with le shan tang  complete works definitive edition. Doing it in this way, the always correct image in order to safeguard oneself, the more important thing was so as not to leave future trouble.
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