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2012年历史文献学专业博士论文摘要
来源:清史所 作者:清史所 点击数:2571 更新时间:2015-6-4

2012年历史文献学专业博士论文摘要

1、清代邸报研究

论文作者:孔正毅

导师姓名:黄爱平
培养单位:历史学院清史所
论文名称:清代邸报研究

中文摘要

    邸报作为我国古代的政府官报,从汉代算起,曾走过近两千年的历史。在其漫长的历史演变过程中,古代邸报从内容到形式,从生产到发行都发生过或多或少的种种变化,烙下了鲜明的时代印记。尤其是到了我国封建社会的最后一个王朝——清代,邸报的发育更加完善,其内容更为丰富、形式更加多样、抄传与发行的数量空前扩大、社会影响日益增强,充分体现了作为古代社会主要信息传播载体的独特价值。论文的基本内容具体如下。全文分两个主要部分。第一部分绪论。主要阐述论文的选题缘起及研究意义;论文研究的具体对象及其涵盖的范围;国内外学者关于清代邸报的研究现状;本文研究的特色;主要应用的研究方法以及文献史料的具体处理等。第二部分为论文的主体部分,共由七个章节组成。全面论述有清一代的邸报问题。第一章“清代以前邸报发展的历史考察”。主要是学术史的回顾。陈述自我国古代邸报产生以来,关于邸报问题研究的历史演变。包括汉唐邸报之起源、宋代邸报之初兴、元代邸报之新材料、明代邸报之繁盛以及各朝代邸报文献之存佚状况等问题。是对于我国古代邸报研究的宏观描述。第二章“清代邸报的存佚状况及其版本体系”。是从历史文献学的视角,系统考察清代邸报的文献存佚状况。包括清代邸报原件即直接文献的国内保存现状,各类公私文献中关于清代邸报间接文献的载录情况,海外关于清代邸报文献的收藏线索等。在此基础上,进一步探讨清代邸报的版本体系。提出清代邸报的“抄印并行”、“大小号本”、“一报多本”、“官私本”等版本特点。文献和版本的考察为下文研究奠定了文本基础。第三章“清代邸报的管理与生产”。着重探讨清代邸报的管理机构和文本产生的具体过程。重点分析两个主要机构——“通政使司”和“六科”在邸报管理中的作用。关于清代邸报的生产,主要关涉各级臣僚题本章奏的上报环节,论文集中分析题本章奏汇集内阁后的处理,包括票签、帖黄、批红等,然后上报皇帝,经皇帝御批之后,下阁汇集至红本房,六科给事中每日派员至红本房,进行发抄。最终完成邸报的生产。清代邸报的严格管理,为其实施严密有效地政治控制建立了制度上的保障。第四章“清代邸报的内容与文本结构”。主要是从新闻传播学的角度,解读清代邸报作为新闻媒介所传播的社会内容。根据笔者统计,清代邸报中的内容主要涉及“皇帝日常活动”等十四个方面。虽然主体上与前代差别不大,但是,像“民族”、“外交”等方面也出现了一些新鲜内容。清代邸报的排版编辑是新闻学研究必须考察的因素,总体上与前代基本一致,如“谕旨”、“奏折”等,但也出现了属于清代邸报特有的样式,如“宫门抄”、“官员选单”等,在前代邸报中就很少发现。第五章“清代邸报的发行与抄传”。邸报要发挥社会影响,必须有效地传播至读者手中,清代邸报是如何抄传的。本章重点探讨清代邸报的发行与抄传问题。认为:驻京提塘是清代邸报发行与抄传的主要承担着。同时,清代的驿传系统也承担着重要的传递功能,特别是清代中叶以后,“公文”与“邸报”合并传递现象日趋频繁,清代驿传在传递公文的同时,无疑也承载着邸报的发行功能。本章最后,探讨了清代邸报发行的经费问题,以证实邸报发行的具体状况。第六章“清代的京报与民间报房”。清代邸报研究的重点和难点之一是区分“邸报”与《京报》之关系。实际上,有清一代,“邸报”与《京报》自始至终就没有真正分离过。所以,探讨清代邸报,必须研究清代的《京报》。本章从京报之起源、清代民间报房之兴盛、到报房京报之内容和清代《京报》之发行,进行系统发掘,试图厘清邸报与《京报》之间的渊源流变关系。第七章“清代邸报的受众与控制”。论文从新闻学的效果理论出发,探究邸报对于清代社会的实际影响。首先是清代邸报的受众类型分析,包括各级官吏、士人群体、市民胥吏等。接着通过清代历史上出现的诸多“伪邸抄案”,进一步分析清代中央政府是如何实施邸报控制策略的。最后为论文结语,综合概述清代邸报的价值体系:历史文献、新闻传播、古代社会公共舆论空间的建构。本文值得一提的内容有如下两点:首先,研究方法的更新。关于清代邸报的研究,目前主要有两类成果:其一是新闻传播通史性著作的一章一节研究;其二是关于清代邸报的单篇论文成果。总体上看,清代邸报研究的深度和广度,都十分有限,仍有较大的研究拓展空间。本文以清代邸报为考察对象,结合历史文献学与新闻传播学的双重视角,展开专题性研究。集中从清代邸报的文献存佚状况与版本体系建构入手,考察清代邸报的管理与生产,系统分析清代邸报的内容与形式,立体建构清代邸报的抄传与发行网络,深入剖析清代“邸报”与《京报》之关系,最后,结合清代邸报的读者对象,进行接受分析。完成对清代邸报的历史文献学和新闻传播学的双重解读。其次,史料新发现。在文献史料的使用方面,本文主要依据的文献史料——《邸抄》和《京报(邸报)》。这两大部近三百巨册的“清代邸报”影印件,目前新闻史学界几乎没有提到过的,为笔者首次大规模运用于清代邸报的研究之中。同时,笔者从《四库全书》中检索出数十条清代邸报资料,也是过去新闻史学者,不曾用到过的。所有这些,都为本文写作奠定了坚实的文献学基础。 

英文摘要

    As the government officials report, Ti-pao(邸报)has existed for two-thousand-years from Han Dynasty. In its long history of evolution, there are so many changes which have significant features of the times in content and form and production and even publication. Particularly in Qing Dynasty, the development of Ti-pao is much more complete. The content is more abundant, the form is much more multiple, the amounts of the publication continue increasing, the social impact become more and more important. Fully reflects the unique value of Ti-pao as the main vehicle of information and communication in the ancient society. This paper has two major parts. The first part is introduction which illustrates the meaning of the selection of this topic and the implication of the research, the target and the coverage of the research, the current study on Ti-pao of Qing Dynasty in the world. The characteristics of this paper are the unique research method and the analysis of the historical materials. The second part is the main thesis composed by seven chapters which comprehensive discuss the subject of the Ti-pao of Qing Dynasty. Chapter one is "research on the Ti-pao before Qing Dynasty". It is mainly the review of the academic history, stating the evolution process of Ti-pao research since the emerging of it, which includeing Ti-pao's origin in Han and Tang Dynasty, the initial rise in Song Dynasty, the new material of Yuan Dynasty, the prosperity in Ming Dynasty and the question to Ti-pao's existence in each dynasty. It is about the macro-description of the ancient Ti-pao research. Chapter two is “present maintenance and the version’s system”. It is mainly illustrate the maintenance of the Ti-pao of Qing Dynasty from the Historical Documents’ standpoint. Including the original Ti-pao’s saving situation directly, the indirect record of Ti-pao of Qing Dynasty from all the literature and the clue of the Ti-pao’s collection overseas. On this basis, discuss Ti-pao’s version system further more.  Proposed the features of the version just like “Both print and copy”, “Both the big sizes and the small one”, “Not just one edition for one report”, “Private for the official” and so on. These researches are prepared for the later part of this article. Chapter three is “the production and management of Ti-pao of Qing Dynasty”. This part is talk about administration of Ti-pao of Qing Dynasty and the specific process of the script. It is focus on the effect of the administration in the process of Ti-pao’s production which is called “Tong zheng shi si” (通政使司)and “Liu-ke”(六科). Talk about the production of Ti-pao of Qing Dynasty, it is mainly related to the process which the ministers’ reports submitted to “Nei-ge”(内阁). In this part the “Nei-ge”’s treatments toward the ministers’ reports is mainly analyzed, including “Piao-qian”(票签) “Tian-huang” (贴黄)“Pi-hong”(批红). Than these reports are handed to the emperor to get the evaluations, after the appraisal these reports converged in “Hong-ben-fang”(红本房), and there are officials who work for “Liu-ke”, coming to the “Hong-ben-fang” to copy and publish everyday. The strict management of Ti-pao of Qing Dynasty provides protection of the political control. Chapter four is “the content and context of ‘Ti-pao’ of Qing Dynasty”. It is interpreted the social affairs which people found from “Ti-pao” just like a media, base on the major of Journalism and Communication’s standpoint. According to the statistics, the content of “Ti-pao” of Qing Dynasty mainly involved “the daily life of the emperor”. Although the subject of the article is just like the former, but there is also so many new changes emerge, for example there are so many new contents about the “Nationality” and “Diplomacy”. Journalism treats the editing of Qing Dynasty just as the research objective; it develops with the former orbit, for example, we can found “Yu-zhi”(谕旨) and “Zou-zhe”(奏折) in Ti-pao. At the same time, we also can found some new styles which never emerge before, just like “Gong-men chao” (宫门抄)and “Guanyuan-xuandan”(官员选单). Chapter five is “the publication and communication of Ti-pao of Qing Dynasty”. In order to impact the citizen more effective, the publication and communication of Ti-pao becoming the research’s main issue. The point is that Ti-tang is the main executor of the publication and communication, and the official mail system also plays the significant role. Particularly in the Late-Qing Dynasty, the “official report” and “Ti-pao” delivered together more common, the process not only means the delivery of the official report, it also means publication of “Ti-pao”. At the end of this chapter, the expenses of the publication were discussed, in order to improve the existence. Chapter six is “Ching-pao (京报)of Qing Dynasty and the civil ‘Pao-fang’”(报房). Professional researches try to find the difference between the “Ti-pao” and “Ching-pao” continuously. Actually there isn’t any separation between them. So the study on “Ti-pao” also is a research on “Ching-pao”. This part takes the systematic expatiation of “Ching-pao”, illustrating the history of “Ching-pao” and tries to explain the relationship between “Ti-pao” and “Ching-pao”. Chapter seven is “the audience and government control of ‘Ti-pao’ of Qing Dynasty”. According to the effect theory, this part tries to explore the social influence of “Ti-pao”. Firstly, analyze the audience which including so many kinds of citizen. Then using the actual cases to illustrate the political control of the central government of Qing Dynasty. At last, the epilogue comprehensive indicate the value of “Ti-pao”, including the historical documents, communication, the public space construction of the ancient society. This paper is worthy mentioning because of the following two points: First of all, it is the update of the research methods. Presently there are two types of the research achievement on “Ti-pao”. Study on the history of the journalism and communication on the macro background, or focus on the subject with the small breakthrough point. In general speaking, the researches on “Ti-pao” of Qing Dynasty are very limited; there is still a large study space to develop. Take the “Ti-pao” of Qing Dynasty as the inspect object, combining the double perspective view of literature and history of journalism and communication, carry out the monographic study. Focus from the preservate condition and the version of “Ti-pao”, inspect the management and production of “Ti-pao”. Systematic analyze the contents and forms of “Ti-pao”, construct the network of the communication and publication. Lastly analyze the relationship between “Ti-pao” and “Ching-pao”, take the accept analysis rely on the audience. Finish the explanation of “Ti-pao” of Qing Dynasty in double perspective view of literature and history of journalism and communication. Secondly, using the first-hand characteristic literature material. This paper mainly based on historical documents has the following two kinds, “Ti-chao”(邸抄) and “Ching-pao”. These two types nearly 300 copies of “Ti-pao” which I used, have almost never mentioned by the current research, as the first large-scale use in the investigation of “Ti-pao”. Meanwhile, there are dozens of materials which I seek from “Si-ku-quan-shu”,(四库全书) also are never used before in the former researches. All these are prepared for the abundant literature materials and the writing eventually. 


2、明清秘密教门再研究 ——一个宗教学视野的考察 

论文作者:雷春芳 
导师姓名:黄爱平
培养单位:历史学院清史所
论文名称:明清秘密教门再研究 ——一个宗教学视野的考察 

中文摘要

    本文尝试用宗教学的视角探讨明清秘密教门问题。在这一思路的背后,其实有一个潜在的思考,就是面对明清秘密教门这一特殊复杂的历史现象,面对学术界已有的关于秘密教门问题的诸多研究和各种不同的观点,如何才能以一种更加合理而且可行的方法作一个新的审视,既能更好地还原秘密教门的历史面貌,又能帮助我们从今天的视角更加深入透彻地理解和分析这一特殊的历史现象,进而提出一些自己关于秘密教门问题的看法。 基于这样的思路,本文除绪论部分外,其余四章实际上是选择秘密教门的内外两个层面进行分析。其中对秘密教门信仰核心及其与佛道教的区别和联系的阐述,以及对秘密教门宝卷的分析,主要是从内在的思想和信仰的层面看待秘密教门现象;对秘密教门组织及其活动的分析以及对清朝统治者惩治教门政策的梳理,则是从外在的教门活动及其与所处社会之间关系和张力的角度看待秘密教门现象。虽然这样的论述不论从框架结构还是对象选择,都难免过于简单和不够全面,但就本文所采用的视角而言,这几个方面都是非常重要的内容。 本文共分五章,第一章为绪论部分,主要有三方面的内容:一是对秘密教门研究的一个学术史回顾和分析。鉴于目前已有数篇公开发表的研究综述性文章,本文着重对明清秘密教门研究的学术脉络进行了简单的梳理,并分析了已有研究的研究路径,介绍了目前学术界关于秘密教门性质问题的争论。二是阐述了本文的研究方法与文献资料情况。主要是在分析指出现有研究中存在的困境的基础上,阐述了引入宗教学概念的必要性和可行性,进而提出了本文的研究思路。此外,还从文献学角度简要介绍了秘密教门的宝卷情况及其在秘密教门研究中的运用问题。三是交待了本文的主要思路和框架结构。 第二章至第五章部分,本文分别选取了秘密教门信仰与正统佛道教的区别与联系、明清秘密教门的经卷、明清秘密教门组织及其活动、清政府对秘密教门的态度及其治理措施等几个重要方面,试图对秘密教门问题做一个多方位的审视。其各章主要内容如下: 第二章主要是从秘密教门的信仰核心和思想来源入手,考察了秘密教门与正统佛道教之间的关系,并以此为基础对秘密教门的“宗教性”层面作了初步的阐释。通过对明清时期正统佛道教发展脉络及“三教合一”趋势等的梳理,探讨普通民众的精神层面,进而指出明清秘密教门并非简单的附佛外道,它在某种程度上具有一定的宗教性,而且反映了明清时期社会下层普通民众的思想和信仰状况。 第三章集中分析了明清秘密教门的经卷。本章首先对“宝卷”这一文本形式及有关宝卷的研究情况作了集中的介绍,然后着重介绍了明清秘密教门宝卷的形式、内容等,试图对秘密教门宝卷做一个深层次的探析。本章最后,在上述内容的基础上提出并探讨了如何看待秘密教门宝卷的问题,总结归纳了明清秘密教门宝卷的特点,并阐述了宝卷对于秘密教门的重要意义。认为教门宝卷不论在形式上还是内容上,都是教门思想信仰及其传播的重要载体,扮演了教门经卷和经典的作用。这样的一个分析框架,也是为了从宗教经典的角度,对明清秘密教门的“宗教性”层面做一个内在的剖析。 第四章选取秘密教门的组织体系与“传教”方式、“敛财”问题(也包括财务问题)以及“劫变”和“救世”思想在秘密教门信仰中的体现与实践等三个方面的问题,试图从秘密教门组织自身及其活动的角度,对以往学者们研究秘密教门着力较多但有不同看法的几个问题进行系统的阐释和分析。主要目的是探讨秘密教门作为一种社会组织,与主流社会之间的张力以及产生这种张力的原因。认为虽然教门思想信仰中有“劫变”和“救世”思想内容,但事实上,只有个别情况和特殊条件下才被付诸实践,因此“劫变”和“救世”思想并不足以构成秘密教门天然的“反叛”性格;至于一直为后来的研究者所诟病的“敛财”问题,也不能一概而论,若将其作量化分析,在大多数情况下,所谓的教门“敛财”实际上与一般的正统宗教的宗教性捐献没有本质的区别,因而教门的“敛财”行为并不是明清秘密教门的整体性污点。 第五章梳理和分析了清朝政府对待秘密教门的态度及治理措施。本章在论述过程中,采取了一个相对中立的视角和立场,既从政府进行社会控制和社会管理的合理性的角度分析了清朝政府治理秘密教门问题的几个主要原因,也从秘密教门自身特点以及明清时期社会历史文化背景的角度,对清政府惩治秘密教门的政策和措施作了力求中肯的分析和评价,进而指出,由于清朝政府在一定程度上忽视了秘密教门的“宗教属性”,仅将其作为一种组织性的异己力量加以消除,因此其政策措施难以见效,这也说明了秘密教门中的宗教性因素是其生命力的重要载体,也是分析和处理秘密教门问题不容回避的重要方面。 在最后的结语部分,本文一方面结合前面几个章节的论述,从一个比较宏观的视角,对明清秘密教门现象作了一个综合性的分析判断;另一方面也重申了研究方法和思路,并对这种方法和思路在实际研究中的可行性及所取得的实际效果进行了分析检讨,以便为今后更加科学和深入的研究提供些许参考和借鉴。

英文摘要

    This dissertation attempts to find some new characteristic about the secret sect in Ming and Qing Dynasties, from the perspective of the science of religion. Because there is a potential question in my mind, what kind of academic method should we use when we discuss about this special complex historical phenomenon? since there are lots of research works and different points of view, how can we get some more reasonable opinion, and then put forward some own opinions about the secret religion. Based on this train of thought, besides the introduction part, the rest four chapters of this dissertation actually choose two aspects to undertake an analysis. From a internal thoughts, mainly discuss about the difference and relationship between secret sect and traditional Buddhism and Taoism belief , as well as the secret sect Baojuan; and from a external way, mainly discuss about the organization and activity of secret sect, as well as policies took by the Qing Dynasty rulers to punish secret sect organizations, I means there is a tension between secret sect and Qing government. Although this argument is too simple and not comprehensive enough, no matter from the frame structure or object selection, but the perspective, these aspects are very important contents as far as this dissertation is concerned. This paper is divided into five chapters, the first chapter is the introduction part, mainly has three aspects: first one is the review of the academic history and analysis on the secret religion research. Given numbers of published research works and articles at present, this paper focuses on the sequence of the existing research about secret sect of Ming and Qing Dynasties, and analysis of the existing research path, introduced property debate at present. On the second, this paper describes the research methods and literature information. Mainly analysis and points out the existing problems and dilemma in the existing research on the basis of religion concept, and introduce the necessity and the feasibility of the perspective from the science of religion, thus reaching the introduction part or effect. The third one is the account of the main ideas and frame structure of this dissertation. During the second chapter to the fifth chapter, the paper selects some most important aspect of the secret sect, such as the relationship and differences between secret sect and Buddhism and Taoism as orthodox faith, the secret religion organization and its activities, the government’s policy and attitude of the Qing Dynasty, and its control measures in several important aspects. And divide those aspects into two levels, internal and external , try to make a more comprehensive survey. The main content of each chapter are as follows: The second chapter is mainly examines the relationship and differences between the secret sect and the orthodox religion such as Buddhism and Taoism from a point of view of the belief and thought origin of the secret sect, and on the basis of the secret sect’s “religious” level made a preliminary explanation of the secret sect of Ming and Qing Dynasties, and then points out the secret religion is not just a simple interpret out of context of Buddhism and Taoism, in some extent, it is a certain kinds of religious, but also reflects the social lower general people’s thought and belief state. The third chapter focuses on the religion scripture analysis of the secret sect in Ming and Qing Dynasties. Firstly, made a brief introduction about the text form and the relevant academic research of Baojuan, and then describes the content of the Baojuan and so on, attempts to make a deep analysis about Baojuan. At the end of this chapter, the content is presented on the basis of how to treat the secret sect Baojuan, and summed up its characteristics, and elaborated the religious significance of Baojuan. The fourth chapter selects the secret religion organization system, the “missionary” activity, “money” problem ( also include financial problems ) and the “disaster” and “salvation” thought in the secret religion belief and practice. By those aspects of the secret sect, try to outline some new opinion about some questions that is discussed by scholars from different point of view. This kind of analysis is attempted to make an explanation about the tension between secret sect and mainstream society. The fifth chapter analyzes the Qing government’s attitude towards the secret religion and its control measures. This chapter took a relatively neutral angle and position, both from the government’s social control side and social management of the rationality of the Qing Dynasty government, and point out that there are mainly three aspects of reason. At the end of this chapter, this dissertation make a critical and evaluation about the Qing government’s policy by analyzing the characteristics and social historical and cultural background of Qing Dynasty. Last but not least, there is a conclusion part, on the one hand, this part made a comprehensive analysis and judgment based on the combination of previous several chapters from a macro perspective. and on another hand also reiterated the research methods and ideas, and provide some reference so as to deal with relationship between organization like secret sect and mainstream society in practice.

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