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2007年历史文献学专业博士论文摘要
来源:清史所 作者:清史所 点击数:2166 更新时间:2015-5-29

2007年历史文献学专业博士论文摘要

1、周必大文献学实践与成就研究

论文作者:谷敏

导师姓名:黄爱平
培养单位:历史学院清史所
论文名称:周必大文献学实践与成就研究

中文摘要

    本文论述主题是周必大的文献学实践与成就。生活在南宋早中期的周必大(北宋钦宗靖康元年-南宋宁宗嘉泰四年(1126年-1204年))是朝廷重臣、文人、学者、文献学家。他曾官至宰相,深得当时南宋高宗、孝宗等皇帝的信任,有“太平宰相”之称。他参与了孝宗朝的许多重要政策的制定,同时也是南宋早中期的词臣冠冕,又被当时人视为文坛领袖,其文集《文忠集》多达两百卷。周必大去世后,时人称之为“国朝元老”、“儒者宗师”,认为他接续了韩愈、欧阳修的传统,将其与欧阳修并称,可见他在南宋早中期的政治演进与学术发展中的地位和作用。但比较而言,周必大对后世影响最深远的还是他的文献学实践活动。周必大一生无论仕宦还是家居,都极为重视典籍,曾亲自主持和参与了许多重要的文献学实践活动。他在致仕后刊刻的《欧阳文忠公集》与《文苑英华》两部大书,成为这两部书当时及后世的最好版本。以往研究者多注重对其所刊书籍(如《欧阳文忠公集》、《文苑英华》)本身的研究,而较少关注周必大究竟是如何编辑校勘《欧阳文忠公集》与《文苑英华》的,对周必大的其他文献学实践也关注较少。特别是周必大撰有大量题跋书序,在有宋一代名列前茅,其中所含目录、校勘、版本、考据等内容极为丰富,此外,周必大首次将御批、札子这两种文体引入题跋创作之中,为后世的研究者保留了更多南宋时期的史料,这亦是他超越前人之处,但他的这些文献学成就却未能引起学者们的重视,研究十分欠缺。故而本文在广泛征引各种文献(如文集、传记等)的基础上,将周必大放在广阔的时代背景下,对他在文献学领域所进行的具体实践,从学术史与社会史等多个角度加以审视,进而对其文献学成就进行初步的总结。这样做,不仅有助于客观认识周必大文献学实践及成就,也有助于通过这样一个有代表性的人物,透视整个南宋文献学发展的真实情况。就框架结构而言,除绪论及结语外,本文分为五章。第一章为“周必大生平与著述”,该章简要论述了周必大的生平、著述以及文集版本,并就一些具体问题进行了讨论。第二章着重讨论了周氏在入仕期间所进行的文献学活动。第三章讨论周必大重刊《欧阳文忠公集》,在这一章里,笔者讨论了《欧阳文忠公集》的刊刻起因、参与编纂校勘之人员、编纂校勘与刊刻过程等问题,其中编纂校勘过程是本章的重点。第四章题为“重刊《文苑英华》”,此章主要研究了周必大重新编纂校勘及刊刻《文苑英华》的情形,其中有关校勘的具体方法是本章之重点。作者将《欧阳文忠公集》与《文苑英华》两书之校勘进行了比较,认为就校勘方法而言,《文苑英华》更胜一筹,另外,作者还论述了《文苑英华》校勘与《文苑英华辨证》一书的关系。第五章主要论述周必大所作题跋书序。作者试图在文献学的视野下,对周必大大量题跋书序的内容进行疏理,以此进一步了解周必大在文献学方面的成就。最后一章当中,笔者试图通过疏理周必大晚年在庐陵的人际交往,考察其文献学活动与社会交往之间的关系。总之,南宋是中国历史上学术文化及文献学蓬勃发展的时期,周必大的文献学实践顺应并推动了南宋文献学的发展进程,这也使周必大在南宋文献学领域具有举足轻重的地位。周必大不仅为后人留下了两部精美的宋版书籍与从数量到质量都让人赞叹的题跋书序,其与彭叔夏相互商榷并由彭叔夏在此基础上撰写的《文苑英华辨证》,更成为中国校勘学史上最重要的著作之一。笔者注意到,周必大所做的这些成就,除了与当时重视文教的客观历史条件、他本人的知识结构与人生经历等主观条件分不开外,也与南宋存在着既重义理、又倡考据的学术风气分不开。故而本人希望这篇《周必大文献学实践与成就》的论文,能以点带面,有助于今人对南宋、乃至整个宋代的文献学发展状况以及学术史发展状况有更清晰的疏理与认识。

英文摘要

    What the theme of this thesis narrates is throughout Zhou Ida’s documents practices and his contribution in the South Song Dynasty. Zhou bida(1126-1204)was an important minister, an excellent literalist and  scholar ,and an outstanding philologist of the court in South Song Dynasty. He was a prime minister but his activity of document practices influence aftertime profoundly. Zhou bida emended and printed and published“OUYANGWEN ZHONGGONGJI” and “WENYUANYINGHUA”,which had been the best edition of the two books ,and he wrote a number of epigraphs in  South Song Dynasty. However , few scholars viewed him as a philologist, which is insufficient for the overall research of Zhou bida .On the basis of quoting all varieties of documents comprehensively, this thesis rather sufficiently discusses the documents Practices and contribution of Zhou bida .And, I study the methods of textual research elementarily. All that may be complementary for the inadequate parts of the same kind research. As far as framework is concerned, the contents of this thesis were composed of five parts mostly. Beginning with the era background, the chapter I of this thesis narrates the life story of Zhou bida .The chapter II studies the activities of documents of Zhou bida  when he being an official. The third part discusses some items of Zhou bida printed  and published of“OUYANGWEN ZHONGGONGJI”.And the fourth part discusses the motivation of Zhou bida printing and publishing “WENYUANYINGHUA” again , and discusses certain problems of Zhou bida amendering and printing  “WENYUANYINGHUA” . The Chapter V studies the relationship between Zhou bida and the esquires and officials in Luling area of Jiangxi province. In a word, there were great progress in the field of culture and philology of South Dynasty. The document practices of Zhou bida promoted this kind of fashion, and Zhou played an important role in the field of philology in South Song Dynasty. Zhou not only printed two find books but also wrote a number of preface and postscripts.Zhou bida discussed  with Peng shuxia ,and Peng then wrote “WEN YUAN YING HUA BIAN ZHENG ”which had been the most important books of the history of the philology of ancient China. What Zhou bida had got these efforts not only related with the society environment of South Song Dynasty and his own personality but also related with the style of study of Song Dynasty which both advocated “li” and textual research. Therefore, we can look Zhou bida as an excellent philologist in Song Dynasty. What he had done in terms of science of historical documents impacted aftertime in a way. All in all, Zhou bida played a remarkable role for inheriting our splendid culture. And on the other hand, I also hope that my study can help people understand the scholarship of Song Dynasty comprehensively.  


2、中西文化视野下的王先谦研究——以史学为中心

论文作者:王青芝
导师姓名:黄爱平
培养单位:历史学院清史所
论文名称:中西文化视野下的王先谦研究——以史学为中心

中文摘要

    王先谦(1842—1918年),湖南长沙人,字益吾,或逸吾、逸梧,号葵园,斋名虚受堂,与王夫之、王文清、王闿运并称为湖南四王。同治四年(1865)进士,历任国史馆编修、翰林院侍讲、国子监祭酒、江苏学政等职。光绪十五年(1889)辞官归里后,先后主讲思贤讲舍及城南、岳麓两书院。新政期间,还任过湖南师范馆馆长、湖南铁路局名誉总理、湖南省咨议局会办等。辛亥革命后自署曰遯,以清朝遗老自居,先后移居平江、长沙郊区东乡凉塘,以著述终老。王先谦是一个政治家兼学者,在清末政治舞台上异常活跃。于学术亦涉猎广博,在经、史、子、集四部均有建树,著述等身,所撰、所编、所校、所刊之书多达58种,对当时及后世学界均有裨益,影响深远。而就政治和学术来说,王先谦在学术上的成就和贡献更为显著,在中国学术史上占有重要地位。作为一名学者,王先谦生前已饮誉海内,身后亦备受关注。比如,光绪三十四年(1908),湖南巡抚岑春萱将王先谦所著《尚书孔传参正》、《汉书补注》、《荀子集解》、《日本源流考》四种上奏朝廷,朝廷因四书有裨于学术发展和世教人心而嘉奖王先谦,赏其内阁学士衔。与王先谦同时或稍后的学者对其学术也有很高评价,如李肖聃、吴庆坻、支伟成、徐世昌、蔡冠洛等。总之,王先谦在学术上成绩显著,而史学是其大宗,具有传统性和时代性双重特色。王先谦之所以在史学上取得如此骄人的成绩,主要得益于他的经历和学术交游。王先谦一生经历了危世出生、困学苦读;仕宦生涯、学业益进;书院讲学、潜心撰述三个阶段。危世出生、困学苦读主要是王先谦在湖南读书阶段。期间受到湘学经世致用、向西方学习等传统的影响,故而奠定了王先谦史学中经世致用的学术基调。仕宦生涯、学业益进是王先谦在京师、江南等的从仕经历。在此阶段,王先谦受到京师兼收并蓄学术风气及江南考据文化的影响,形成了以考据见长、兼容中西的史学特色。书院讲学、潜心撰述主要是王先谦在思贤讲舍及城南、岳麓两书院的讲学经历,培养了一批著名学者。另外,王先谦终成为一代史学大师,与其学术交游也有密切关系。他能聆听师长的教诲、潜心向学友请益、虚心与弟子切磋,这对其史学都有很大帮助。在中西文化交融的大背景下,王先谦的史学亦中西兼治。其成就主要体现在史籍校注与文献整理、史地学与民族史研究、外国史地研究等方面。《汉书补注》、《后汉书集解》等对古代史学名著——《汉书》、《后汉书》进行了校勘、注释和考证,是王先谦在史籍校注与文献整理方面的主要成果。这些体现了王先谦实事求是、不掠他人之美、重视追溯源流、广征博引、择善而从的治学特色。同时,王先谦也具有自觉的文献整理意识,非常重视对当代文献的辑录与编撰,并积极为友朋整理、刊刻遗著等。王先谦史地学与民族史研究的成就有:对地理名篇名著如《汉书•地理志》、《水经注》的考订与校释以及对蒙古、中山国历史的研究。王先谦对蒙古及中山国的关注,体现了其忧患意识。他想用蒙古、中山国的历史来激励清王朝奋起抵抗外敌的入侵。王先谦的史地学研究虽然重视实地考察,但主要采用的还是文献考据的方法。王先谦史学中的时代特色主要体现在其晚年对世界史地之学的关注和研究上,即撰成《日本源流考》、《五洲地理志略》、《外国通鉴》等。从中反映出王先谦的西学观,即主张学习西方及日本的先进文化。在重道轻器、夷夏之辨等传统思想的影响下,王先谦赞同的是学习西方的农桑、工艺和商业等。他虽然也承认西方工艺的先进性,但还是认为西学是“形而下”的学问,有贬抑西方文化的意味。王先谦具有求是、爱国、经世、变易等史学思想,其学术成就有目共睹,独具特色,集中反映在校勘、笺注与考证,集传统史学之长;综合各家之长,推动传统史书编纂体裁的变化和发展;尝试研究外国史,初步具有世界眼光等方面。从对王先谦史学的分析来看,其治学虽然主要是循乾嘉遗规,但毕竟已开始尝试外国史研究,且对当代史表示了关注。这些都是近代社会史学中的焦点问题,说明了王先谦的史学研究具有御侮图强的意识。

英文摘要 

    Wang Xianqian(1842-1918) , Who was born in Changsha City of Hunan Province , named Yiwu and called Kuiyuan , whose studio was named Xushou Tang . He was one of the four famous scholars including Wang Fuzhi , Wang Wenqing and Wang Kaiyun from Hunan Province . In 1865 , Wang Xianqian became a successful candidate in the highest imperial examinations . Then he was admitted into the institution of history of the country , Provincal educational officer of Jiangsu Province and so on in the following years . Wang Xianqian retired in 1889 and returned his hometown , there he became a teacher of some teaching-institutions , including Sixian and Yuelu and Chengnan . During the Reform Movement in 1898 , Wang Xianqian was recommended to be the master of the Normal School of Hunan Province and the manager of the railway institute . When the 1911 Revolution occurred , Wang Xianqian lost his interest in politics and changed his name to be Dun , then he moved to Pingjiang and Liangtang of Dongxiang in the suburb of Changsha City and studied and writed books until he died in 1918 . As a statesman and scholar , Wang Xianqian once took a very important part in the political arena of the latter Qing Dynasty . In addition , he made a study of many subjects . The number of books he wrote or compiled was as many as 58 , which had made an important effect on scholars at that time and later. In politics and academic research , Wang Xianqian had a higher achievement in the study of academic and played an important part in the history of learning of China . As a scholar , he was famous for his knowledge in all his life and after death . For example , Qin Chunxuan as a governor of Hunan Province recommended Wang Xianqian’s four books : Reference on Shangshu and Kongzhuan , Annotation of the Research on History of Western han , Annotation of Xunzi and the Ascertainment in the Origination of Japan to the royal government in 1908 . Wang Xianqian got the high praise . And scholars at that time and later paid a high appraisal to his academic achievement . Wang Xianqian got very good achievement in history research , which had traditional and modern characteristics . When it comes to his great success in the research of history , Wang Xianqian should give his thanks to the experience of his life and friends who once helped him a lot . Wang Xianqian spent his youths in Hunan Province , where he began to accept his education and was influenced by the Usability and attention to the western culture of Culture of Xiang , Which made a foundation for his later history study . When he lived in Beijing as an official of the government , he learned to accept different kinds of knowledge and ideas , and later in Jiangsu Province , he also accepted textual criticism which was popular there . In consequent , he became to be well known for his good master of textual criticism and his being open-mind to both the Chinese and western culture . When Wang Xianqian worked at Sixian Academy and Yuelu Academy , he paid his whole attention to teaching , studying and writing . As a result , many of his students became very famous scholars later . Wang Xianqian had made a lot of friends , and learned modestly from them , including his students . Because of the interaction of the Chinese culture and the western culture , the scope of Wang xianqian’s study included the Chinese history and the western history . And he got a great accomplishment in collating and annotation on historical literature , historical geography , the research on national history and so on . Annotation of the Research on History of Western han and Variorum on the Research about History of Eastern han stood for the main accomplishment of Wang xianqian . And the job he did made us know that Wang xianqian was really a strict and modest scholar , who would never copy the other scholars’ books and ideas . He had his own characteristic in studying , including paying enough attention to the origination of historical literature , searching for as much historical literature as possible and picking up the best ones among those historical literature . At the same time , Wang Xianqian had an aware consciousness of reorganization on ancient books and paid enough attention to accumulating and compiling historical literature of his time . In addition , he helped many friends reorganize and publish their books . Wang Xianqian’s accomplishment in the research of historical geography and national history included textual research and annotation on the famous work about geography , for example , the Geography of the Research on History of Western han and Annotation on Book of Rivers ; the research on history of Mongolia and Zhongshan . His attention to Mongolia and Zhongshan was accompanied by his worry about the safety of the Qing Dynasty . Through the study of those , he wanted to inspire the Qing Dynasty to fight against the invaders . Of course , although Wang Xianqian tried to use means of the On-the-spot investigation , he had to resort to means of textual research often . The modern characteristic of Wang Xianqian’s history was meanly demonstrated in his studying and attention to the history and geography of the world which was made in his old age . During the latter of his life ,Wang Xianqian finished several books including the Ascertainment in the Origination of Japan , the Geographical Introduction of the Five Continents and Records of Foreign country which had demonstrated his attitude to the western culture . In fact , he was always insisting on learning the advanced culture of the western nation and Japan . Under the deeply effect of the traditional thought which had a bias against industry and the foreign cultures , Wang Xianqian advocated to learn the technology in Agriculture 、Craft and commerce ect . Although he admitted the advantage of the western industry and craft , Wang Xianqian still persisted that the western culture belonged to the backwardness . This reflected his having bias against the foreign culture . It’s undoubted that Wang Xianqian had got an impressive accomplishment in his research of history . He had a good master of collating , annotation and textual research . And he made an great progress in the narrative styles of history book . What’s more , he started to make a study of the foreign history and geography . All those reflected that Wang Xianqian has patriotism , pragmatism and change which made us assure that Wang Xianqian’s study of histoty was rooted in his fight agaist foreign aggression .  

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